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ASU's new Tooker House brings engineering education home

ASU's Tooker House is designed for inquisitive engineering minds.
Want to know when your laundry is done? Yeah, there's an app for that.
August 11, 2017

Everything at cutting-edge Tempe residence hall designed to enhance what Ira A. Fulton students learn in classrooms and labs

Editor's note: This story is being highlighted in ASU Now's year in review. To read more top stories from 2017, click here.

When Arizona State University’s latest crop of engineering students move this weekend into the state-of-the-art residence hall built specifically for their discipline, they aren’t living in just any old dorm.

They are living totally immersed in an engineering education experience.

Everything about Tooker House, a brand-new 1,600-student community for engineering students, is designed to enhance and extend what they learn in classrooms and labs.

“Innovation has a new home address at Tooker House,” said Kyle Squires, dean of the Fulton Schools of Engineering. “This mixed-use living and learning facility sets a new standard in engineering education and reflects the breadth and depth of the student experience at the largest engineering school in the nation.”

Video by Ken Fagan/ASU Now

The fully Wi-Fi-accessible facility has enough bandwidth to accommodate four devices per resident. There are seven social lounges, seven study lounges and six academic success centers.

“Everything in here is built with the mind-set of engineers,” said Bradley Bolin, assistant director for residential life at the Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering. “If you look at the ceilings, they look like they’re unfinished, but this is the finished product. They know engineers want to see not just the surface, but what’s beyond the surface. Where does water run? Where is the electricity? What kind of materials did they use?

“If you walk down the hallway, you’ll see where the hot water line is and where the cold water line is. You’ll see where Internet is placed. Our electrical room is all glass on the hallway side. Students who are interested in that type of engineering can walk down to what is running our building and look through and see actual engineers using the space.”

Engineers love to know how things work, and how things are put together.

“To see the inner workings of a building kind of kick-starts peoples’ imaginations,” said Pedro Giorge, a junior majoring in mechanical engineering who lives in Tooker House. “It’s really cool to see an application of what we learn in school actually applied. When you’re in your books and you’re concentrating on your work and the theories behind really don’t make a connection until you actually see something like an electrical system or a mechanical system. It’s just really cool to see that at home for a lot of these students.”

The vast majority of Tooker House residents are first-year engineering students. (The first and second floors are dedicated to upper-division students.) They run the gamut: civil engineering, mechanical engineering, material management engineering.

“Any type of engineering taught at Fulton, they can live at Tooker House,” Bolin said.

Two makerspaces outfitted for engineers provide a collaborative environment where students can work on projects, develop new technologies and have access to tools like 3-D printers and laser cutters. The spaces are also equipped with video chat, adjustable tables, soundproofing and lockers for projects.

“Engineers go through a lot of classes, and they have to do a lot of group work,” Bolin said. “What’s awesome about Tooker House, there’s plenty of group spaces where students can come together and use the floor-to-ceiling, wall-to-wall white boards. They can write out their big equations like they do in the movies. We created spaces like that just for them to walk down the hall with their roommate or someone who is in the same class with them and utilize the space we have here for them to work on their projects together. And, with the academic success centers in Tooker House, they have direct access to tutors, who are sophomores, seniors and sometimes grad students.”

Other amenities in the residence hall include a full-service, 14,000-square-foot, 525-seat dining facility; recreation center with modern student lounges, billiards and ping-pong; a modern fitness center with cardio machines and strength equipment, and a convenience store.

It’s a gated community with 24-hour campus security and front-desk services; live-in residential staff; and a courtyard with a sun deck and outdoor gathering pavilions.

Suites are fully furnished apartments with adjoining bathrooms, hardwood-style flooring, solar blackout shades, USB outlets and ceiling fans.

On-site laundry facilities with Bluetooth washers and dryers notify students when cycles are complete. 

“We have 130 washers and dryers to accommodate (students),” Bolin said. “They are on the second, fourth and sixth floors. There’s a really cool app. If a student doesn’t want to get out of their room, they can check the app to see when a machine is available and when their laundry is done.”

The new residence hall is named for Diane and Gary Tooker. Diane Tooker is an alumnus of ASU’s Mary Lou Fulton Teachers College and a former business owner and elementary school teacher. Gary Tooker is an alumnus of the Fulton Schools of Engineering and a former CEO of Motorola.

Together, the couple has made contributions to ASU through the ASU Foundation for more than 30 years, including support for the university’s teaching and engineering programs and the endowed Diane and Gary Tooker Chair for Effective Education in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math. Gary Tooker’s contributions to fostering Arizona’s tech sector were recognized with a lifetime achievement award presented at the 2012 Governor’s Celebration of Innovation.

“Diane and Gary Tooker are not only longtime supporters of ASU, but of innovation and education. Tooker House epitomizes the best of both,” said Gretchen Buhlig, CEO of ASU Foundation. “We are grateful to them, and for the opportunity to bring new spaces and modes of learning to our Fulton Schools of Engineering students.”

Top photo by Charlie Leight/ASU Now

Scott Seckel

Reporter , ASU News


Leading Phoenix manufacturer ON Semiconductor invests in business, engineering with named ASU professorships

August 11, 2017

Two Arizona State University faculty members have been named the inaugural ON Semiconductor Professors in Business and Engineering to attract, support and retain top business and engineering talent in the Phoenix area.

Leading semiconductor-based solutions supplier and longtime ASU industry partner ON Semiconductor created these endowed professorships and committed $2 million to the W. P. Carey School of Business and the Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering named professors over a five-year period. The gift, like all private donations made to ASU, contributes to Campaign ASU 2020. Professors Dale Rogers and Bertan Bakkaloglu Professors Dale S. Rogers and Bertan Bakkaloglu were named ON Semiconductor Professors of Business and Engineering, confirming their roles as leaders in their respective fields of supply chain management and electrical engineering. Photo by Marco-Alexis Chaira/ASU Download Full Image

Bertan Bakkaloglu, a professor of electrical engineering, was named the ON Semiconductor Professor of Engineering, and Dale S. Rogers, a professor of logistics and supply chain management, was named the ON Semiconductor Professor of Business. These distinguished faculty members were nominated by their respective schools.

This partnership will help both ASU and ON Semiconductor sustain the growth in resources and people needed to maintain leadership in the tech market.

“Phoenix is quickly becoming a place where technology companies are looking to expand, and that means academic-industry partnerships will increase their importance both on the research and design front, as well as the talented individuals leading the charge with new innovative approaches, automation and systems,” said Tobin Cookman, senior vice president of human resources at ON Semiconductor, which offers a portfolio of products to help engineers solve electronic design problems and boasts a reliable world-class supply chain.

The professorships mark the latest in a long line of collaborations between ASU and ON Semiconductor stretching back to 1999. The two institutions have partnered on numerous initiatives to foster growth in both academic and industrial advancement, and the new partnership was welcomed by the deans of both the business and engineering schools. 

“This partnership with ON Semiconductor not only provides terrific recognition of our outstanding faculty, it also advances our research capabilities and drives meaningful change to help cement the Phoenix area as a business and technology leader,” said Kyle Squires, dean of the Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering and professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering. “We look forward to what ON Semiconductor, the Fulton Schools and the W. P. Carey School can accomplish together to impact the future of innovation in engineering and business.”

Amy Hillman, dean of the W. P. Carey School of Business and holder of the Rusty Lyon Chair in Strategy, added, “ON Semiconductor is driving innovation and operating a reliable and responsive supply chain with high standards for ethics and compliance. As a business school with a top-ranked supply chain management program, we are thrilled to collaborate with ON Semiconductor and grateful for this investment in our impressive faculty. I am confident that the partnership between ON Semiconductor and the W. P. Carey School will fuel more impactful research and discovery.”  

The professors named by ON Semiconductor are pushing the frontiers of scholarly impact and productivity in the fields of business and engineering, as well as inspiring and engaging students as mentors, advocates and role models.

“We look to work closely with faculty and researchers to keep up with the latest technology developments,” Cookman said. 

The named professorship funds will benefit the recipients’ research, equipment, facilities, student support and associated scholarly endeavors.

Bakkaloglu is grateful for the ON Semiconductor’s support, which will allow him to grow the Fulton Schools’ programs and influence in the industry.

“The ON Semiconductor Professorship will enable me to grow our analog, mixed signal and radio frequency design curriculum and research program further, making it one of the premier programs in the country,” Bakkaloglu said. 

Bakkaloglu joined ASU’s electrical engineering faculty in 2004 after working in industry on system-on-chip designs with integrated battery management and analog baseband functionality as a design leader at Texas Instruments.

He is an expert in radio frequency (RF) and power amplifier (PA) supply regulators, RF synthesizers, biomedical and instrumentation circuits and systems, high-speed RF data converters and RF built-in-self-test circuits for communication integrated circuits.

Rogers is a leading researcher in the fields of reverse logistics, sustainable supply chain management, supply chain finance and secondary markets with an extensive history in publishing, presentation and academic professional organizations and boards. In 2012, he became the first academic to receive the International Warehouse and Logistics Association Distinguished Service Award in its 120-year history.

Rogers feels honored to be awarded an endowed position named for a company in an industry that improves people’s lives.

“ON Semiconductor has a rich history and a strong record of innovation that has led to an improved standard of living for billions of people globally,” said Rogers, who has a more than 30-year history of working in the semiconductor industry.

Rogers hopes to expand his research with Elliot Rabinovich, a professor of supply chain management, on the internet’s influence on supply chain management evolution. 

“I am hoping that the support of the ON Semiconductor Professorship will help us expand the Internet Edge Supply Chain Lab,” Rogers said. “It is already growing quickly, but we are hoping that it will be the preeminent research lab on internet-enabled supply chain management.”

Jeff Wincel, vice president and chief procurement officer at ON Semiconductor, has a strong relationship with the W. P. Carey School of Business. He is a current ASU Trustee representing the W. P. Carey School of Business, as well as a member of the W. P. Carey Dean’s Council and has served as a faculty associate of the supply chain management department.

In addition to his connection to the W. P. Carey School, Wincel’s connection to Rogers goes back many years. In fact, Wincel was one of Rogers’ first students when Rogers taught logistics as a doctoral student at Michigan State University in the late 1980s.

“Dr. Dale Rogers is among the first-generation academics and early pioneers in supply chain management (SCM). His work and research has reshaped a discipline that was once seen as little more than administrative processing,” Wincel said. “Dr. Rogers is among a select group that has advanced SCM to an important and meaningful discipline, providing strategic insight and competitive advantage to the world’s leading companies. We are proud to have Dr. Rogers as the first recipient of the ON Semiconductor Professor of Business at the W. P. Carey School of Business.”

Cookman is looking forward to what this partnership can accomplish in the supply chain and engineering fields. 

“Collaborating with top-ranked schools like the W. P. Carey School of Business and the Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering leads to creative and original solutions in both the supply chain and engineering industries,” Cookman said. “As both markets mature, the next generation of highly skilled business and engineering leaders will be needed to advance the technology innovation of the future.”

Monique Clement

Communications specialist, Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering


Better engineering for humans, by humans

Rod Roscoe awarded prestigious Tooker Professorship to advance work in developing engaging human systems engineering curriculum at ASU

July 25, 2017

Engineers create the devices, software, chemicals, materials, machines, buildings, airplanes and other systems that make our daily lives better.

However, to successfully design for the diversity of the human experience, engineers must understand people — their clients as well as themselves — in addition to technology. Portrait of Rod Roscoe in a computer lab. Caption "Rod Roscoe, assistant professor of human systems engineering, works with students in his SLATE Lab to improve engineering education Rod Roscoe, assistant professor of human systems engineering, works with students in his SLATE Lab to improve engineering education. His efforts led to a prestigious Tooker Professorship to advance his work in developing an engaging human systems engineering curriculum at ASU's Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering. Photo by Jessica Hochreiter/ASU Download Full Image

Enter the Human Systems Engineering program in Arizona State University’s Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering. This recently added program seeks to prepare students to consider both the human and technology sides of engineering by combining psychology and technical coursework.

Introduced as a major and minor in fall 2016, the program is being developed out of the applied psychology-focused courses offered in the former College of Technology and Innovation, which became the Polytechnic School in 2014. The merge became a unique opportunity for faculty members with backgrounds in psychology and an interest in education, such as Rod Roscoe, assistant professor of human systems engineering.

“We’re a group of psychologists in an engineering school, and I think that makes us a unique resource in the way we think about things,” Roscoe said. “There’s a growing appreciation for this kind of mind-set.”

Roscoe believes this human-focused approach to engineering will help attract, engage and retain students in engineering fields of study — and to integrate it into the Fulton Schools program, he’s taking his own iterative human systems engineering approach.

Prestigious Tooker Professorship leads the way

Roscoe’s efforts to improve engineering education at the Fulton Schools has earned him a prestigious Tooker Professorship to further his work. Tooker Professors implement innovative projects to increase engineering student retention and persistence, create more rewarding learning experiences, greater student diversity and provide experiences that give students a competitive edge in the job market. They’re selected through a competitive annual proposal process and appointed for one- to two-year terms.

“This is a wonderful encouragement and commitment from the Fulton Schools to the Human Systems Engineering program,” Roscoe said. “I think it shows that others appreciate the ‘human side’ of engineering and are willing to let us promote that approach. And I think all of us in the Human Systems Engineering faculty are committed to living up to those expectations.”

The Tooker Professorship began in 2011 with an endowment from ASU alumni Diane and Gary Tooker. The Tookers are passionate about attracting and retaining students in STEM fields with exciting learning environments, owing to their backgrounds as an elementary school teacher and CEO of Motorola. 

Roscoe will leverage his Tooker Professorship to develop an engaging human systems engineering curriculum. He seeks to identify the needs, gaps and opportunities to introduce students to human systems engineering principles in ways that strengthen their engineering and how they conceptualize as well as solve engineering problems.

“We think that human systems engineering has the potential to be really engaging to the ASU students who are here to solve real problems, change the world and improve the world,” Roscoe said. “Doing these things involves not only strong technical knowledge and skills, but a good understanding of the ‘people side’ of real-world challenges.”

To foster an appreciation for a broader view of engineering’s role in society, Roscoe will first explore how students are currently applying human-centered engineering in their projects and survey prospective and current students to determine their attitudes toward psychology and engineering.

These activities will help Roscoe generate guidelines for aligning human systems engineering course content to students’ broader needs and interests.

To encourage students to pursue and engage in engineering, Roscoe will also develop a “problem-based recruiting” exercise to help prospective students think about being problem solvers and engineers.

“Students are more engaged and persistent when they have a passion and a purpose for what they do — when they can connect ‘stuff I’m learning’ to ‘stuff I want to do,’” Roscoe said. “Introducing students to the human side of engineering solutions could make that link more real and authentic to students at risk of ‘disconnecting,’ switching majors or even leaving ASU.”

To achieve this, students would brainstorm a problem that interests them and then come up with engineering and human solutions to the problem.

For example, if a student is interested in reducing infection risks in surgery, they may imagine engineering bacteria-resistant materials or new antiseptic drugs, but could also think of doctor, nurse and patient behavior adjustments that would decrease infection risks.

Recruiters can use this dual problem-solving approach to introduce prospective students to Fulton Schools programs that would enable them to solve these problems, as well as encourage them to consider human systems engineering courses or a minor to supplement their ability to solve human problems through engineering.

The analysis of these activities will help tell what the human systems engineering program should be teaching to excite and benefit students.

An emphasis on the human side of engineering can help with retention as well as engagement for students who highly value a sense of belonging and contribution, personal and real-world connections, and opportunities for people-centered or altruistic work that benefits society. Roscoe notes that these concerns are often important to groups that are underrepresented in engineering.

A course, a minor or a major all improve engineering education

Whether students pursue human systems engineering as a major or a minor or simply take the introductory course, Roscoe aims to make human systems engineering a helpful part of a Fulton Schools student’s education.

“We made sure that HSE 101, the intro freshman course, fills the social-behavior course requirement,” Roscoe said. “Engineering students can now take a course that is geared to engineering interests and that satisfies an important general-studies requirement.”

Other HSE courses cover a wide range of topics, including research methods, statistics, decision making and qualitative and quantitative methods. Some courses are geared more toward the psychology side, and Roscoe said they’re working on adding more of a technology focus to others.

“Curriculum design is iterative in the same way that the human systems engineering approach is iterative,” Roscoe said. “As existing and new students move through the program, students nearing graduation and alumni can also tell us what experiences they felt really prepared them.”

Taking a human systems engineering approach beyond ASU

Roscoe was also recently awarded a three-year, $300,000 research grant through the National Science Foundation’s Division of Undergraduate Education.

With engineering Assistant Professor Micah Lande, human systems engineering Associate Professor and program chair Rob Gray and human systems engineering Assistant Professor Scotty Craig, Roscoe will assess the progress made by his Tooker Professorship project with an eye on achieving a wider impact.

Their aim is to develop and test learning modules that integrate psychology and engineering for use in classrooms beyond ASU.

“The Tooker Professorship activities are primarily directed at strengthening Human Systems Engineering, the Polytechnic School and Fulton Schools,” Roscoe said. “The recent NSF award ensures that we’ll be able to test our ideas more rigorously and share them with a broader audience beyond ASU. We look forward to sharing the work with colleagues and contributing to the scholarship in this area. In turn, their input and expertise will improve our own program development.”

Monique Clement

Communications specialist, Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering


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ASU Foundation sets fundraising record, generates more than $220M for university’s programs, services

Support from private donors funds ASU scholarships, public services and more.
July 13, 2017

Record amount of private support follows public launch of Campaign ASU 2020

In the months following the launch of Campaign ASU 2020, a comprehensive resource-raising effort to sustain and grow Arizona State University’s educational activities, the ASU Foundation has announced the completion of a record year in fundraising for academic programs, research and services at the university.

At the close of the 2017 fiscal year, early estimates show private donors from across Arizona and the world contributed more than $220 million for ASU to enable access and excellence within higher education. The previous record of $215 million was set in fiscal year 2016.

“We’re trying to build something that the university needs going forward, which is a culture of philanthropy,” said ASU President Michael M. Crow. “All great universities in the United States are built around philanthropy.”

“This strong momentum indicates that our model is working and that our community is growing in its understanding of the value of private support to the university — and of the value of the university in society,” said R.F. “Rick” Shangraw Jr., chief executive officer of ASU Enterprise Partners, the parent organization to the ASU Foundation.

Campaign ASU 2020 focuses on six priorities — student access and excellence, student success, the academic enterprise, discovery, creativity and innovation, our communities and Sun Devil competitiveness — but donors are able to choose from 5,000 specific areas to make an impact. Those areas range from support for faculty developing space instruments for NASA to travel grants for undergraduates at Barrett, The Honors College to bringing Broadway shows to campus at ASU Gammage.

“I believe ASU is a major life force in our community, and I want to do my part to help it thrive,” said Jeremy Meek, Class of ’09, a donor and President’s Club Young Leader. He is one of more than 100,000 individual, corporate and foundation supporters to give to ASU this year.

Though private support is not a replacement for public funding, it provides the margin of excellence that allows scholars’ experiences to transform from good to great.

Around 8,000 students each year receive scholarships — perhaps the best-known category of support — provided by private donors.

Other beneficiaries include the reinvented Sun Devil Stadium; mid-career professionals hoping to transition to teaching; and the student-run, free health-care clinic for the homeless in downtown Phoenix.

One gift made international headlines when it was announced that Charlie and Lois O’Brien, two of the world’s foremost entomologists, would donate their collection of insect specimens and an endowed professorship to maintain them. The gift is valued at $12 million.

“We are so genuinely grateful for our donors,” said ASU Foundation CEO Gretchen Buhlig. “Because of them, ASU is able to start closing the gap between jobs in Arizona that require a college degree and the number of Arizonans that have one. What’s more, they are genuinely doing good in the world through the research they enable and the programs that help our students who might not otherwise attend or graduate from college.”

The ASU Foundation is a private, nonprofit organization dedicated to advancing the mission of ASU as the New American University. It has consistently received the highest ranking for efficiency and transparency from Charity Navigator, the largest independent nonprofit evaluator, and was named a “Top Company to Work For in Arizona” by

To learn more about supporting ASU, visit

Top photo: Sun Devil Giving Day, an annual event each spring, raised more than $3 million in donations large and small from more than 1,000 supporters across the country. Photo by Charlie Leight/ASU Now

Beth Giudicessi


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Gretchen Buhlig appointed to ASU Foundation’s top post

July 5, 2017

With 15 years in leadership roles supporting ASU, longtime fundraiser oversaw the launch of $1.5 billion Campaign ASU 2020

The Arizona State University Foundation for a New American University announced today that longtime fundraiser Gretchen Buhlig has been named chief executive officer of the organization, effective July 1.

Buhlig served as chief operating officer and managing director of the ASU Foundation, a nonprofit organization that raises and invests private support to advance the mission of its affiliated university. She will continue to work closely with Rick Shangraw, CEO of the parent organization to the ASU Foundation, ASU Enterprise Partners, and other distinct private nonprofit resource-raising companies formerly housed within it.

Buhlig brings two decades of donor cultivation and stewardship experience to the position, including close relationships built over her 15 years in leadership roles supporting ASU.

“Gretchen deeply understands the unique value of this university and how meaningful it is when a donor is able to connect with a student, researcher or program to support what he or she loves,” ASU President Michael M. Crow said. “We’re grateful for her leadership and for the contributions the ASU Foundation makes to the progress of Arizona State.”

Under the guidance of Shangraw and Buhlig, the ASU Foundation broke fundraising records for the past three years and expanded givers to include more than 100,000 individual, corporate and foundation donors.

In January 2017, they oversaw the launch of Campaign ASU 2020, ASU’s first comprehensive fundraising effort during Crow’s tenure. At the time of the campaign’s public unveiling, it had secured two-thirds of its goal to raise at least $1.5 billion by 2020.

Buhlig is credited with shaping the ASU Foundation’s 2025 Strategic Plan alongside representatives from across the development staff. She increased collaboration amongst deans and fundraising volunteers, and led growth of the ASU Foundation’s engagement programs, including President’s Club and Women & Philanthropy, which she helped found.

“Gretchen’s insight, warmth and deep commitment to increasing student access and excellence at ASU and across the community is evident in all she does,” said William Post, chairman of the ASU Foundation Board of Directors and former chairman and CEO of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation. “We are better for it. ASU is better for it. Phoenix is better for it. The influence of her work and the work of ASU’s generous donors goes far beyond that.”

“By building on years of work by our development staff and continuing the momentum of the newly launched Campaign ASU 2020, it is a more exciting time than ever to accelerate our efforts to foster a culture of philanthropy at the university,” Shangraw said.

Buhlig previously served as associate vice president of institutional advancement for A.T. Still University. She is a graduate of Augustana College and Walden University.

“It is my honor to lead an outstanding team of passionate fundraisers who are eager to connect with our supporters in the community,” Buhlig said. “In the spirit of the New American University, we are implementing new ideas from within an atmosphere of invention to create and sustain the resources that enable ASU’s research, teaching and learning. I look forward to building on our tremendous energy to continue strengthening that important work.”

Beth Giudicessi


ASU Professor Ray Henkel remembered

Retired geography professor remembered for commitment to students

June 29, 2017

Ray Henkel, a much-beloved professor of geography at Arizona State University for 29 years, passed away earlier this year on March 11 at age 86.

Henkel taught at ASU from 1966 to 1995, beginning his position as assistant professor at a time when most Phoenix-area teachers were ASU-trained and nearly all geography teachers were ASU graduates. Coming into this setting, Henkel instructed many key courses in regional geography, introducing his students to regions from South America to Africa to the Middle East. Photo of Ray Henkel Download Full Image

“When I took my first world geography course at ASU in 1968, I didn’t realize that Ray would become my lifelong adviser, mentor and friend throughout my teaching career in geography and physical science,” said Tony Occhiuzzi, an Arizona high school teacher for 40 years and currently on the faculty at Mesa Community College.

Henkel especially focused on courses in Latin America, having done his dissertation research on agriculture in Bolivia.

Teacher and mentor

Before the internet brought new opportunities for distance learning, Henkel focused his energies on extending learning opportunities beyond ASU’s Tempe campus. In his first years at ASU, he taught evening courses for teachers on the west side of Phoenix, driving across town weekly. He established a program to allow teachers to earn a Master of Arts in geography.

By 1980, he invited videographers into his classrooms in Tempe. The live evening broadcasts, available on cable TV and in a downtown Phoenix classroom, were popular with undergraduates, teachers pursuing advanced degrees, and community members. “We hope to make people aware of what is happening elsewhere throughout the world and present some analysis,” Henkel said in a 1995 interview.

While he impacted thousands of students, many of whom became Arizona’s public-school teachers, friends and former students invariably mention Henkel’s personal qualities.

“He was a professor — but in terms of his humane way of dealing with people, he was a quiet beacon. He was full of knowledge, a wise man and completely selfless,” said Klaas Frantz, professor at the University of Innsbruck in Austria, who became close to Henkel while living in Tempe and doing research in Arizona in the 1980s.

Henkel played an important role for graduate students as well as undergraduates; over the course of his career, he guided 26 master's theses.

“When I approached him in 1978 to talk about my intent to do field research in the Amazonian region of Peru, Ray did not bat an eyelash and helped me every step of the way,” said Martha Works, professor emerita of geography at Portland State University. 

“His contacts and familiarity with the region opened doors for me and allowed me to understand the tropical rainforest regions of Peru and Bolivia through the lens of someone with deep insight into the area," she said.

In addition to his interactions with students in academic settings, in his early years Henkel led the geography honor society, Gamma Theta Upsilon, and continued to participate actively in the group throughout his years at ASU. Later, he served as adviser to the Latin American, African and Middle Eastern student associations. He established a summer course that took students into the field to learn data collection hands-on.

Farm to university

Henkel was born on a farm in Oklahoma, attended rural schools and graduated from high school in a class of 15 students. He came to Arizona with his family in 1948, where they worked picking cotton. After a stint in the Army in which he became a commissioned officer in the Army Corps of Engineers, he returned to Arizona and worked as a produce farm manager. He decided to take classes at ASU and earned his bachelor’s degree as a geography major in 1960, earning almost perfect grades while continuing his work managing Badley Produce Company.

Henkel applied for and earned a scholarship to the top-ranked University of Wisconsin geography program, where he earned both a master's degree and a doctorate.

In 1964, he traveled to Bolivia to carry out his dissertation research, which examined the environmental problems of people moving from the highlands to the lowlands. Coca production was just becoming a major activity in the region. This began Henkel’s many years as a consultant on coca and cocaine production for organizations such as the Rand Corporation, U.S. Department of State, and the Office of Technical Assistance for the U.S. Congress, and USAID. During many summers, he worked for agencies in Latin America on cocaine and other agricultural problems in the tropics.

From 1970 to 1972 Henkel took a leave from ASU to be acting chair of the Geography Department at the University of Zambia at Lusaka, Africa.

Returning to ASU, he continued to teach courses with enrollments ranging from 100 to 300. His courses drew students from business, education and engineering in addition to geography.

Ray Henkel Scholarship

Henkel was especially proud of the scholarship established in his name — the first ASU award specifically benefitting geography students. The award is given each year to an outstanding undergraduate geography major. After beginning his television courses, strangers would come up to Henkel and tell him they enjoyed his classes — and he would ask them contribute to the fund that supported the scholarship.

“Henkel had a true commitment to students. He was a very compassionate person, who was willing to help any student who wandered into his office,” said Malcolm Comeaux, emeritus professor and ASU colleague. “He was always positive, never judgmental and never had a bad word to say about anyone.”

Those who wish to honor Henkel’s memory are encouraged to make a donation to the Ray Henkel Scholarship Award either online or with a check made out to “ASU Foundation, c/o Ray Henkel Scholarship (#40002451)”, and mailed to Clay Tenquist, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 6505, Tempe, AZ 85287-6505.

Note: A detailed biography of Henkel appears on the American Association of Geographers’ web site.

Barbara Trapido-Lurie

research professional senior, School of Geographical Sciences and Urban Planning


Pulitzer-winning NY Times data editor joins ASU Cronkite School

June 22, 2017

Sarah Cohen, the Pulitzer Prize-winning data editor of the New York Times and former Duke University professor, is joining the Walter Cronkite School of Journalism and Mass Communication as the Knight Chair in Data Journalism.

Cohen, who joined the New York Times in 2012, leads a five-person team specializing in analyzing data and documents for investigative projects. She came to the New York Times from Duke University, where she served as the Knight Professor of the Practice of Journalism and Public Policy at the Sanford School of Public Policy, focusing on computational journalism. From 1999 to 2009, Cohen was a prize-winning data reporter and editor at the Washington Post. Sarah Cohen Sarah Cohen, the Pulitzer Prize-winning data editor of the New York Times, is joining ASU's Cronkite School as the Knight Chair in Data Journalism, where she will teach graduate and undergraduate data journalism classes and help lead investigative projects at Cronkite News. Download Full Image

“Sarah Cohen is a tremendous journalist, an inspiring teacher and the premier data journalist of our time,” said Cronkite Dean Christopher Callahan, who taught Cohen when she was a master’s student at the University of Maryland in the early 1990s. “Cronkite students will benefit enormously from her many talents and dedication to journalism and higher education, and the public will continue to be well served by the in-depth journalism she and her ASU students will produce.”

Cohen, who will join ASU in October, will teach graduate and undergraduate data journalism classes and help lead investigative projects at Cronkite News, the student-staffed, faculty-led daily news organization that serves as the news division of Arizona PBS, and Carnegie-Knight News21, the multi-university investigative reporting initiative based at Cronkite.

“It’s an honor to get an opportunity to work with these award-winning student journalists at the most exciting journalism program in the country,” Cohen said. “Working again with former colleagues and with the Knight family of professors makes it even more welcoming.”

The Knight Chair at ASU was created in 1996 through a generous grant from the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation, the nation’s leading philanthropic supporter of journalism education. Knight is a major supporter of Cronkite School programs in digital innovation and the school’s “teaching hospital” model of journalism education.

Cohen shared in the 2002 Pulitzer Prize for Investigative Reporting for a Washington Post series that exposed the deaths of 229 children in the District of Columbia who had come to the attention of its child protective system. The series, “The District’s Lost Children,” also won the grand prize in the Robert F. Kennedy Journalism Award.

Cohen also was a Pulitzer Prize finalist in 2007 for the Post’s investigation of waste and abuse in U.S. farm subsidies, which led to congressional reform. Cohen also served on two other teams that were Pulitzer finalists and assisted in three other series that won or placed in the Pulitzers.

She has won virtually every other major prize in journalism, including the Goldsmith Prize for Investigative Reporting, the Selden Ring Award, the Investigative Reporters and Editors Medal and the Gerald Loeb Award.

Cohen joins a growing cadre of Pulitzer Prize-winning professors at the Cronkite School.

Steve Doig, who will be stepping down from the Knight Chair after 21 years but is staying on the faculty part time, and Jacquee Petchel, executive editor of Carnegie-Knight News21, were key members of a Miami Herald team that won the 1993 Pulitzer Prize for Public Service for an investigation into property damage in south Florida caused by Hurricane Andrew.

Walter V. Robinson, the Donald W. Reynolds Visiting Professor who teaches investigative reporting at Cronkite, led the Boston Globe’s Spotlight team to the 2003 Pulitzer Prize for Public Service for its sweeping investigation into sexual abuse by Catholic priests. The Globe investigation was made into the Academy Award-winning movie “Spotlight.”

Leonard Downie Jr., the school’s Weil Family Professor of Journalism and former executive editor of the Washington Post, led the newspaper to more Pulitzer Prizes than any editor in history — 25 Pulitzers during his 17 years as the top editor. Downie hired Cohen at the Post and worked with her for a decade.

“Sarah is a high-impact, innovative data journalist dedicated to accountability reporting, digital transformation of the news media, freedom of information and the continuing development of current and future investigative journalists,” Downie said. “She is a strong leader and a creative collaborator. The Knight Chair at the Cronkite School will enable her to have an even greater influence on the future of accountability journalism at a critical time.”

In addition to her newsroom work, Cohen has substantial experiences in the classroom. She has served as a part-time instructor at Columbia University’s Graduate School of Journalism since 2013 and taught at the University of Maryland in addition to her three years as the Knight Professor at Duke.

Cohen started her professional life as an economist. After earning an bachelor's degree in economics from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1979, she joined the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, serving as an economist there for more than a decade. In 1991, she enrolled in the master’s program at the University of Maryland’s Philip Merrill College of Journalism.

After earning her journalism degree, she became a reporter at the Tampa Tribune and later the competing St. Petersburg Times before joining Investigative Reporters and Editors, a national nonprofit journalism organization, as training director.

Cohen is the immediate past president of IRE and founder and director of the Duke Project for the Advancement of Public Affairs Reporting. She also serves on the board of advisers of the Fund for Investigative Journalism and has judged numerous journalism competitions, including the Scripps Howard Award in Investigative Reporting, the IRE awards and the Goldsmith Prize.

She has testified before U.S. Senate and House committees on freedom of information and government transparency issues. She also speaks around the globe at conferences about journalism and public access.

Cohen is the author of “Numbers in the Newsroom: Using Math and Statistics in the News” and is completing a new work, “A Guide to Data Science in Investigative Reporting.”

Barretts donate $2M to shape global citizens at ASU’s honors college

Announcement made during remarks at Barrett, The Honors College convocation; gift bolsters Campaign ASU 2020

May 9, 2017

Arizona State University announced Tuesday a $2 million gift from Ambassador Barbara Barrett and her husband, Craig Barrett, to support global citizenship programming at the eponymous Barrett, The Honors College at ASU.

Vice Provost and Dean of Barrett, The Honors College Mark Jacobs made public the family’s most recent commitment to the university while introducing Barbara as a distinguished guest at the Honors Convocation at Wells Fargo Arena. Ambassador Barbara Barrett Barbara Barrett is a former United States Ambassador to Finland, a trained astronaut, advisor to four American presidents on trade and defense policy and chair of the Aerospace Corporation. She and her husband, Craig Barrett, have announced a $2 million gift to ASU to support global citizenship programming. Download Full Image

Jacobs explained that the Barretts’ endowment of The Honors College in 2000, the largest donation made to ASU at its time, set the college on its path to national renown. Their second major gift, he said, “will allow the college to support its students as they become responsible, global citizens while educating them about the issues and challenges that the international community and planet face.”

“Today, no one will be able to be successful without having some familiarity with the world around them. That is an important element of an education, whether it’s in aerospace engineering or real estate or anthropology,” Barbara said. “In presenting the gold standard of education, it is all the more important for ASU’s Honors College to have a global component.”

The New York Times’ Frank Bruni called Barrett, The Honors College, “the gold standard” in honors education. It is home to 6,800 high-achieving scholars.

The college urges students to enhance their educational experience by travelling. Advising services and several scholarship programs are available for those hoping to study abroad in one of Barrett, The Honors College’s off-site locations, including Peru, Greece, Italy, Australia and the United Kingdom. The Honors College also offers research and service-learning opportunities overseas.

The Barretts’ gift will boost those programs and will grow the Barrett Global Fellow program established this year to bring international leaders to ASU to engage with students.

Ghanaian engineer and senior researcher George Yaw Obeng, the inaugural Barrett Global Faculty Fellow, taught at Barrett, The Honors College during the 2016-2017 academic year and said, “The creation of facilities and provision of opportunities and resources that support exposure of students to different cultures, language and environments will help them to appreciate diversity in life and nature.”

“It is a gift that allows us to take a step we could not take before, allowing each honors student access to international leaders visiting the campus, international study trips and an honors curriculum exposing them to most pressing global issues,” Jacobs said.

ASU is a top-rated institution for domestic students who study transnationally and is ranked as the top public university chosen by international students, according to the Institute of International Education’s 2015 report.

Findings by the Association of International Educators suggest that studying abroad enhances one’s personal growth, career prospects, leadership skills, academic performance and empathy.

Along with Harvard, Stanford and Chicago, ASU is one of only four institutions to produce Rhodes, Marshall and Churchill scholarship winners in 2017. ASU’s three elite scholarship winners graduated Tuesday from Barrett, The Honors College and will pursue degrees in the United Kingdom next fall.

“I’m just so thrilled that I’ve had the opportunity to study with Barrett students and learn from Barrett faculty. It’s been absolutely the best experience of my life, and I’ve gotten so much more out of it than I ever imagined I could in a college experience,” said Erin Schulte, who was presented the Outstanding Graduate Award at today’s ceremonies.

Erin Schulte and Barbara Barrett

From left: Barrett, The Honors College Dean Mark Jacobs, Claire Williams, Erin Schulte and Barbara Barrett pose for a picture at the Barrett, The Honors College Convocation on Tuesday. Williams is an alumna and head of alumni and parent programs. Schulte is the college's Outstanding Graduate. Around 800 graduate scholars watched as Jacobs announced a $2 million gift from Craig and Barbara Barrett to support global citizenship programming at Barrett, The Honors College. Photo by Charlie Leight/ASU Now

Schulte, winner of the Marshall Scholarship, majored in global studies and worked on international humanitarian issues while at ASU. She co-founded the All Walks Project, a student-led non-profit that brings awareness of human trafficking to at-risk populations, and facilitated the organization’s expansion into Thailand.

“Being a Barrett student opened doors for me I did not even know existed,” said Ngoni Mugwisi, an electrical engineering major and winner of the Rhodes Scholarship. “I am particularly grateful for the opportunity I received to take the Human Event classes, which challenged me to think critically about the human condition while engaging in conversations with diverse students whose diverse ideas about difficult topics were phenomenal.”

“We are tremendously grateful for Barbara and Craig Barrett and the opportunities they create for students to encounter new ideas and succeed in an ever-changing world,” said R.F. “Rick” Shangraw, CEO of ASU Foundation. “They are mentors for our entire community. Their generosity comes in multiple forms, and we are lucky to learn from them.”

The Barretts are among ASU’s most generous donors.

Together, they have made nearly 250 gifts to the university totaling in excess of $22 million, including a $3 million commitment in February to endow the O’Connor Justice Prize administered by the Sandra Day O’Connor College of Law in tribute to the Honorable Sandra Day O’Connor, former U.S. Supreme Court justice and Ms. Barrett’s mentor.

Among their numerous accomplishments, Barbara is a former United States ambassador to Finland, a trained astronaut, adviser to four American presidents on trade and defense policy and chair of the Aerospace Corporation. Craig is former CEO of Intel and strong supporter of educational reform. He chairs BASIS Schools, whose Phoenix location ranked as the most challenging high school in America this week by The Washington Post. The well-known business leaders and philanthropists own Triple Creek Ranch, a Montana hideaway voted the best hotel in the world by readers of Travel + Leisure.

Their gifts contribute to Campaign ASU 2020, a comprehensive, campus-wide effort to generate at least $1.5 billion in support for the university’s programs and services, for which supporting Global Citizenship at Barrett, The Honors College is a priority. Barbara is an honorary principal of the campaign and spoke at its launch in January.

To learn more about the Barrett, The Honors College story and supporting its Global Citizenship programs, visit

Beth Giudicessi


Awards ceremony celebrates outstanding achievements of students in ASU School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences

May 3, 2017

The School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences recently hosted its annual Scholarship and Awards Ceremony celebrating outstanding students, faculty and staff at the Sun Devil Welcome Center auditorium on Arizona State University’s Tempe campus. Eight graduate students received awards, and 19 undergraduates earned scholarships or awards in recognition of their outstanding achievements.

This year’s event welcomed one new award for graduate students. The Dennis Young Graduate and Early Scholar Statistics Award is endowed by statistics Professor Emeritus Dennis Young, faculty, alumni, and friends, and was awarded to graduate student Abigael Nachtsheim. Scholarship and Awards Ceremony auditorium The School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences hosted their annual Scholarship and Awards Ceremony in the Sun Devil Welcome Center auditorium. Download Full Image

This scholarship was created to support the legacy of Dennis Young, who was dedicated to graduate education, advising more than 30 master's and PhD students in statistics during his 35 years at ASU. He was a pioneer in the development of the MS and PhD degrees in statistics and served on numerous graduate student research committees from many disciplines. He is a long-standing active member of the American Statistical Association – Arizona Chapter and a fellow of the ASA.

Two new scholarships for undergraduates were also awarded for the first time. The Optumas Actuarial Science Scholarship is endowed by founder and managing director Steve Schramm. Senior actuary Tim Doyle and actuarial consultant Joe Costa were in attendance to see Bo Swoverland receive the inaugural award.

Optumas is a consulting firm that brings about health care reform from not only the perspective of who receives health care but also how people receive care. Through this scholarship, Optumas will help nurture the best and brightest ASU actuarial science scholars to positively impact this growing and necessary field.

The second new undergradute scholarship is the W.R. Berkley/Nautilus Insurance Analytics Scholarship, endowed by the W.R. Berkley Corporation Charitable Foundation. Nautilus is a member company of W.R. Berkley Corporation, a Fortune 500 company recognized as one of the most respected names in the property and casualty insurance industry. 

With this scholarship Nautilus seeks to recognize a scholar that exhibits strong analytical thinking skills, and will continue to utilize these skills in their academic and professional work. President and CEO Tom Kuzma and vice president of actuarial and data analysis Brent Carr were in the audience to applaud actuarial science student Brendan Sturm for receiving this first-time award.

The top two undergraduates from the school’s 850 mathematics majors were also recognized. Alexandra Porter received the Charles Wexler Mathematics Prize, presented each year to the outstanding undergraduate senior mathematics major. The student is selected by an awards committee based on faculty nominations. Ryan Theisen was chosen as the spring 2017 College of Liberal Arts and Sciences Dean’s Medalist for both mathematics and economics.

Several faculty members received teaching honors. Carl Gardner received the Charles Wexler Teaching Award, presented each year to an outstanding teacher of undergraduate mathematics. The winner is selected from nominations made by undergraduate students with majors in the School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences. Katie Kolossa and Scott Surgent were recognized with Outstanding Instruction and Service Awards.

The school’s outstanding staff member award was renamed in memory of Michelle Howe, who worked for the school for 16 years, most recently in student engagement and advising. Howe’s father and uncle, James Rodgers and David Rodgers, were in attendance to see Margaret Cole receive the Michelle Howe Staff Award for Outstanding Service.

These scholarships and awards not only recognize the hard work and dedication of the recipients, but also provide much needed financial support.

“Furthering my education has always been important to me and my family, but it is not without its struggles. The financial hurdle that college poses is a tough one to jump,” said Desirae Crespo, recipient of the André Levard Mackey Scholarship. “This scholarship will make it easier for me to focus on my studies by not having to stress and worry as much about tuition.”

The awards also provide a boost of confidence as students move on in their academic careers.

“Next year I will start my PhD in computer science at Stanford, and this is encouragement that I can be successful doing mathematics as part of my research in graduate school and into my career,” said Alexandra Porter, recipient of the Charles Wexler Mathematics Prize. “I also want to thank the faculty and staff in the School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences here at ASU for the impact the program has had on me.”

Full list of awards and scholarships:


Abigael Nachtsheim
Dennis Young Graduate and Early Scholar Statistics Award
Endowed by Dennis Young, family, friends and colleagues

Krysten Pampel
Floyd L. Downs Teaching of Mathematics Fellowship Award
Endowed by Floyd Downs and Elizabeth Lenci-Downs

Paloma Gutierrez Castillo
Graduate Student Research Award
Supported by the School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences

Neil Hatfield
Robert G. Maule Excellence in Teaching Mathematics Award 
Endowed by Elaine Maule

Robert Buscaglia
Erika David
Ashley Duncan
Kristin Frank
Neil Hatfield
GPSA Teaching Excellence Awards


Bo Swoverland
Optumas Actuarial Science Scholarship
Endowed by Optumas

Brendan Sturm
W.R. Berkley/Nautilus Insurance Analytics Scholarship
Endowed by W.R. Berkley Corporation Charitable Foundation

Ricky Pham
Actuarial Faculty Pioneers Scholarship
Endowed by Al & May Boggess, Matt Hassett, Jelena Milovanovic

Alex Kirvan
Blue Cross Blue Shield of Arizona Actuarial Science Scholarship
Endowed by Blue Cross Blue Shield of Arizona

Zhihan Jennifer Zhang
Nationwide E&S/Specialty Actuarial Science Scholarship
Endowed by Nationwide

James Altman
Robert G. Maule Actuarial Excellence Scholarship
Endowed by Elaine Maule

Garrett Deimund
Actuarial Science Scholarship
Endowed by John Zicarelli

Maja Stefanovic
Hailey Walters
Tom and Zona Lorig Scholarship 
Endowed by Tom and Zona Lorig

Sebastian Scouras
J.D. House
Christian Boden
William Lowell Putnam Mathematical Competition — ASU Scorers

Huifeng Sun
Ioana Elise Hociota!!! Memorial Mathematics Scholarship
Endowed by Andrew Holycross, family and friends

Jessica Campos
Joaquin Bustoz Memorial Mathematics Scholarship
Endowed by the Bustoz family, friends and colleagues

Auliya Gurzenda
John Olson Scholarship
Endowed by June Olson

Desirae Crespo
André Levard Mackey Scholarship
Endowed by Harold and Dorothy Mackey, Jr. and friends

Scott Mahan
Jack H. Hawes Memorial Mathematics Research Scholarship
Endowed by Sandra Baldwin

Ryan Theisen
Spring 2017 Dean’s Medal
Supported by the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences

Alexandra Porter
National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship 
Charles Wexler Mathematics Prize
Endowed by Helen and Jonathan D. Wexler 


Carl Gardner
Charles Wexler Teaching Award
Endowed by Helen and Jonathan D. Wexler 

Katie Kolossa
Scott Surgent
Outstanding Instruction and Service Award
Supported by the School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences 

Margaret Cole
Michelle Howe Staff Award for Outstanding Service
Supported by the School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences 


45 years
Hank Kuiper

35 years
John Quigg

30 years
Rosemary Renaut

25 years
Nancy Childress

20 years
Don Jones

15 years
Dongrin Kim
Firoz Firozzaman 
Leslie Loy
Diane Richardson

10 years
Susanna Fishel

5 years
Rehn Kovacic 
Brett Kotschwar
Julien Paupert
Erin Stephens


Matthias Kawski — chair 
Steve Baer 
Don Jones
Jelena Milovanovic

Rhonda Olson

Manager of Marketing and Communication, School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences


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3 new appointments enhance ASU efforts to serve students, community

April 19, 2017

University leaders take on new roles, responsibilities in cultural, communications and Campaign ASU 2020

Arizona State University is rewriting what it means to be a university with a mission to serve its students and beyond, from new ways to open access to higher education, to innovative ways to make a college stalwart — the football stadium — into a community gathering place year-round.

To further support strategic goals such as these, three leaders in the ASU community will take on new and expanded roles.

Christine Wilkinson, Colleen Jennings-Roggensack and Katie Paquet will each assume new responsibilities, effective immediately.

Wilkinson, ASU’s senior vice president, secretary of the university and president of the ASU Alumni Association, will be playing a pivotal role in spearheading fundraising efforts around two of the key components of the Campaign ASU 2020 objectives: ensuring student access and excellence, and championing student success. Campaign ASU 2020 is a university-wide philanthropic effort with a goal to raise at least $1.5 billion for the enterprise over the next three years. Wilkinson will also take charge of the new Office of University Ceremonies and Events, overseeing, among other things, the preparation, protocol and execution of major gatherings like commencement.

Wilkinson has served the university in a multitude of roles for 47 years, including as the vice president of Student Affairs and as the interim athletic director. She holds a tenured faculty position in the Mary Lou Fulton Teachers College and was recently inducted into the Arizona Women’s Hall of Fame.

Jennings-Roggensack has been named vice president for cultural affairs at ASU and will remain the executive director of ASU Gammage, the premiere performing arts venue in Arizona. In her role, Jennings-Roggensack will lead Sun Devil Stadium 365, a university-wide initiative to reimagine and redesign the use of Sun Devil Stadium as a community union used 365 days a year by faculty, staff, students and the entire Arizona community for events and activities beyond athletics. She will also continue her work connecting ASU and the community through the arts.

Jennings-Roggensack was nominated by President Bill Clinton to serve on the National Council on the Arts, which she did from 1994 to 1997. She served as an ambassador for the arts for the National Council on the Arts until 2004. She has held positions at Dartmouth College and Colorado State University and chairs the Broadway League's Diversity and Inclusion Committee. She is also Arizona’s only Tony voter.

Katie Paquet, currently the deputy chief of staff in the Office of the President at ASU, has been named the vice president for media relations and strategic communications, overseeing the creation of print, photo and video stories about the university and engaging with media outlets to proactively communicate the success and work of our students, faculty and staff.

Prior to joining ASU, Paquet was the vice president of public affairs and external relations for the Arizona Board of Regents. She oversaw all communications and government relations activities for the board, serving as a liaison with media, policymakers, and the business, civic and educational community.