image title

How 'food security' is quickly becoming national security

March 22, 2021

The fight against food insecurity has grown in importance over the past decade, as a growing number of underserved communities are living in food deserts — areas that have limited access to food that is both affordable and nutritious. Although the work being done to tackle food insecurity typically happens on a local level, food insecurity is a rising concern for the United States on a global scale.

On March 15, Daniel Sarewitz, Arizona State University professor and Issues in Science and Technology editor-in-chief, moderated the webinar “What Does ‘Food Security’ Really Mean?” to discuss the weaknesses in our food supply systems and the future threats the country faces as we work to strengthen those systems. The event was put on by Zócalo Public Square, an ASU knowledge enterprise that aims to connect people to ideas and to one another, and Issues in Science and Technology, a quarterly journal published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and ASU. 

Sarewitz, a professor of science and society in the School for the Future of Innovation in Society, spoke with Molly Jahn, a leading expert on food security who is a professor at the University of Wisconsin-Madison’s Department of Agronomy and a program manager at the U.S. Department of Defense’s Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), on the role that plant breeding can play in the future of national security.

In recent years, Jahn has been advocating to reframe food-supply systems as a matter of national security. Many Americans are unaware that the country’s existing processes for breeding, planting and distributing crops have incredible global impact. As our food supply systems grow increasingly interconnected, however, they also become vulnerable to external threats.

In “How ‘Multiple Breadbasket Failure’ Became a Policy Issue,” published in ASU’s “Issues in Science and Technology,” Jahn wrote that “the nature of war is changing, from the 20th century’s open warfare to a 21st-century model that must consider nonmilitary threats to U.S. national and economic security. In this emerging reality, adversaries may disrupt everyday life through disinformation and by acquiring control and power through critical infrastructure such as financial systems, power grids and navigation systems. And it’s not impossible to imagine that the nation’s food systems are soft targets — along with other everyday things such as your bank account or favorite streaming service.”

An American adversary could destroy a significant part of the world’s food by disrupting the software and navigational systems that control the nation’s soybean combines for three weeks during the harvest period, Jahn said.

Aside from concerns of conflict-driven scarcity, Jahn noted that future food-system planners should also be prepared for scarcity created by natural disasters, which can deplete food supplies and imperil communities whenever disaster strikes.

The world learned this lesson over the past year, as COVID-19 disrupted supply chains on an international scale, creating shortages in food, cleaning supplies and a range of other products for weeks — even months — at a time.

“COVID-19 demonstrated conclusively that major disruptions can pile on top of each other to collapse networks designed for efficiency rather than resilience,” Jahn said. “The world had already witnessed this when the 2014 Ebola outbreak caused crops to fail in West Africa, triggering a second crisis, this one of famine and food insecurity. But COVID showed a different type of disruption in the United States, as interdependencies in supply chains and consumer buying, sometimes driven by intentional misinformation, exacerbated shortages and price fluctuations. It gets easier to imagine new dangers almost daily: When American shoppers raced to buy vitamin D, few were aware that China is the world’s only manufacturer of the supplement.” 

Jahn’s examination of how the roles in our food supply chains are interconnected, and her mission to prepare America’s food systems for future threats, is crucial work that will continue. However, it wasn’t an easy road to arrive at the research she’s doing today.

The first step in the fight for food security, Jahn said, was realizing the obstacles within the field of agronomy and plant breeding itself.

“Science often gets stuck in its disciplinary stovepipes,” Sarewitz said during the event, elaborating on the tendency of scientists in their field to operate within established processes, and to wade through research with narrow goals in mind. While proceeding with hyper-focus can lead scientists to desired results, it can also preclude them from making larger, interdisciplinary connections — such as undercovering weaknesses within the global food supply process.

“Starting pretty early in my career,” Jahn said, “I got really interested in what it meant to be working in networks, not pipelines.” While plant breeders are often focused on improving plants and seeds for farmers — the people working directly with the product — Jahn began thinking about taking the next step to make food more enjoyable from the consumer’s point of view.

“Those who eat are not the ones who actually purchase vegetable seed,” Jahn explained. “Already a systems thinker, I was interested in the whole system.” In broadening her scope beyond what the farmer needed, Jahn began to understand food supply through each step of the process — from production and distribution, to getting food on the family table.

Viewing the food supply system through a big-picture perspective further enabled Jahn to think about the gaps in the system — seeing entire regions experience crop shortages, the consequences that come with food scarcity, and the global threats food supply systems will face in the years to come.

“What allowed you to do this,” Sarewitz observed, “is that you didn’t think like a siloed scientist — you could put your head in the space of what the consumer was thinking, but you were also thinking about the farmers; you were also thinking about the seed companies, and you were thinking about how they all connect to each other, and you kind of recognized a commonality of interest that’s lost when you have this pipeline model (of thinking).”

In 2017, Jahn’s team succeeded in making food security a formal piece of America’s national defense policy. An amendment to the National Defense Authorization Act ensures that leading experts will continue to take food supply and demand into account as part of a secure future. Stepping outside of the box to view food beyond an agricultural context, and reframing it to apply to our future survival and security, was key to making that connection.

Today, Jahn and her colleagues are spending more time considering what adjustments our food supply will need to keep us healthy and food-secure on a local level as well.

“We are beginning to explore exciting new questions, such as whether the relatively unexplored universe of microbes, bacteria and fungi produce nutrients in hours or days — far more quickly than it takes to grow crops in a field,” Jahn said. “And what if everyone could produce basic ingredients for household needs? What if food was more like air — so no one could easily control it and everyone could be a farmer in a pinch?”

Questions like these will continue to drive the innovation happening in agronomy, food systems and food security as scientists strive to find the most effective ways to feed people halfway around the world, while also putting healthy and accessible food on the table in our local communities.

Top photo courtesy of pixabay.com.

 
image title

ASU will lead effort to upskill, reskill workforce through $8M grant

March 22, 2021

The U.S. Department of Labor has awarded Arizona State University an $8 million grant to lead an innovative workforce development partnership to help train workers for high-paying, high-demand jobs in advanced manufacturing, cybersecurity and information technology (IT).

The One Workforce grant will help address a critical skills shortage in the U.S. by establishing the Arizona Workforce Training Accelerator Partnership for Next Generation Jobs (AZNext). The program, which will be led by ASU and its many partners, is designed to train at least 2,000 participants, with a goal of achieving industry-recognized credentials and permanent job placement over the next four years.

The grant was a collaboration of ASU’s W. P. Carey School of Business, Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering, New College of Interdisciplinary Arts and Sciences and several external partners, including Arizona Commerce Authority, Arizona Technology Council, Arizona@Work, Infosys and Pipeline AZ. The partnership leverages the state’s educational and employment resources to create the workforce of the future.

For years, Arizona has been prioritizing jobs in advanced manufacturing, cybersecurity and IT. The state ranks second in the U.S. when it comes to creating jobs in those emerging sectors, and has filled more than 350,000 related positions since 2015, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Through this new partnership, ASU will help close the skills gap faster and help employers reach new, diverse talent.

“The grant program enables ASU to help the unemployed/underemployed find meaningful careers in fast-paced industries,” said Raghu Santanam, chair of the Department of Information Systems at the W. P. Carey School of Business and principle investigator of the grant. “It will also create career opportunities for underrepresented populations in technology-focused industries.”

AZNext is designed to use a combination of multidisciplinary and industry-relevant training, with multiple insertion points for degree-seeking or nondegree-seeking learners. ASU will leverage programming from multiple colleges and enterprise units, while industry employers will leverage paid internships, train-to-hire programs, boot camps and simulated work experiences. AZNext will also build on another grant-funded program through ASU’s business school: Digital Workforce Apprenticeship Partnership, which was established through ASU’s first department of labor grant to help close the skills gap in America’s workforce.

The Polytechnic campus in Mesa, which is home to some of the engineering school’s top programs, will be the hub for advanced manufacturing education where project-based curriculum and hands-on learning are already taking shape with top industry employers like Honeywell Aerospace, Pilgrim Aerospace, PADT, Siemens, Raytheon Missiles & Defense and TPI Composites.

“The Polytechnic campus is poised to lead the effort in advanced manufacturing including additive manufacturing, robotics and automation and new battery technologies,” said Tom Sugar, co-principal investigator of the grant. “As an associate dean for Barrett, The Honors College (at the Polytechnic campus]), we are always finding ways to enhance the education of our engineering scholars.”

"Today’s and tomorrow’s technicians and engineers need the background and software skills necessary to digitalize product design while increasing manufacturability and quality through field support and workforce development,” said Gerald Deren, vice president of Siemens Digital Industries Software — an AZNext partner. "We feel that the best approach towards building this talent pool resides in the partnerships we develop with universities like Arizona State. Siemens looks forward to working with ASU in preparing students and continuing education professionals for rewarding careers across many industries.”

On ASU’s West campus in Glendale, programs from the New College of Interdisciplinary Arts and Sciences will help educate and train AZNext participants in the fields of biological data science and cybersecurity. This effort is being led by Karan Watanabe, an associate professor in the School of Mathematical and Natural Sciences who has been nurturing science, technology, engineering and mathematics workforce development initiatives for many years.

“I’ve worked to expand inclusion and access to STEM fields to persons of color for years,” Watanabe said. “AZNext offers tangible opportunities for those who have traditionally been underrepresented in STEM fields to advance in high-demand career fields including biological data science and cybersecurity.”

One of the many goals of AZNext is to build a workforce development model that not only works in Arizona but can be applied in other states — eventually upskilling all of America’s workforce. ASU’s partnerships with agencies like Arizona Commerce Authority, which leads economic development and workforce programs across the state, will be critical in this effort.

“Talent is often the key driver in business location decisions,” said Sandra Watson, president and CEO of Arizona Commerce Authority. “Through AZNext, Arizona is further enhancing our workforce and helping ensure a ready supply of talent to fill the highly technical and advanced jobs of tomorrow. We look forward to working with ASU and other partners on this important initiative to advance Arizona’s competitive position in the global economy and create new opportunities for Arizonans.”

AZNext will help ASU build on partnerships that already exist — like the innovative train-to-hire program model with Fortune 500 company Cognizant Technologies — which began in 2019, and allows participants to complete a digital business analyst certificate program through ASU’s business school in 10 weeks, while potentially landing an opportunity to interview with Cognizant after completion.

“As a leading technology firm, Cognizant recognizes the importance of maintaining a highly skilled, deeply knowledgeable workforce,” said Eric Westphal, assistant vice president of workforce strategy and operations at Cognizant. “This proposal with ASU builds on our established Digital Business Analyst Certificate Program and will position us to develop new curriculum and programs designed to help prepare individuals for in-demand digital economy careers.”

ASU’s experience building custom educations for adult learners — like the university’s Starbucks College Achievement Plan and Uber partnerships — have benefited more than 48,000 learners since 2018 and will help strengthen AZNext’s goals and the work already underway by ASU and employers looking to create sustainable, long-term infrastructure for workforce training in emerging technologies in Arizona and beyond.

Top photo by Charlie Leight/ASU News

Jimena Garrison

Media Relations Officer , Media Relations and Strategic Communications