Collection of quick Lincoln essays includes ASU professor

June 8, 2015

The Gettsyburg Address was just 272 words and about two minutes long. Yet Abraham Lincoln’s efficient speech about the gravity of battle and the importance of preserving freedom remains one of the president’s most endearing moments.

More than 150 years after he delivered the address at the dedication of the Soldiers’ National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, we have a fresh collection of responses in “Gettysburg Replies: The World Responds to Abraham Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address.” Gettysburg Replies “Gettysburg Replies: The World Responds to Abraham Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address,” in which an essay by ASU professor Brooks Simpson appears. Photo by: Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum Download Full Image

The book was published this past April after the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library challenged luminaries and historians to write essays of 272 words about Lincoln, his famous address or related areas of interest.

Among the book’s 100 notable essayists ­– from presidents Jimmy Carter and George H.W. Bush to filmmaker Steven Spielberg to retired U.S. Supreme Court Justice and Arizona native Sandra Day O’Connor ­– is Arizona State University Professor Brooks Simpson.

Simpson, an honors faculty member at Barrett, the Honors College and ASU Foundation Professor of History in the the College of Letters and Sciences, penned “The Unfinished Work Before Us,” an essay that examines how some problems of Lincoln’s time still exist today.

In honor of his inclusion in the collection, we spoke with Simpson about sharing a book with presidents and celebrities and the challenges of writing to a 272-word count.

Question: How did you become involved in this project? How was your essay chosen for publication?

Answer: In 2013 Carla Knorowski, the CEO of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield, Illinois, invited a number of people, including me, to contribute essays inspired in some way by the Gettysburg Address as a way to commemorate the 150th anniversary of its delivery on Nov. 19, 1863. There was only one rule: whatever we wrote would have to be 272 words in length – the length of the address itself – no more and no less. Contributors submitted a printed version as well as a handwritten version, which would be put on display at the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Museum. Out of the rather large number of contributions, some 100 were selected for inclusion in a volume entitled “Gettysburg Replies,” and I was fortunate enough to be included. That book appeared on the 150th anniversary of Lincoln’s death on April 15, 1865.

Q: How challenging was it to write an essay of just 272 words? Without giving too much away, as ideally people should purchase the book to read the essays, can you say what your essay is about?

A: For me the economy of language was simply one of the challenges presented by this project. One tinkered with various drafts to get just the right turn of phrase in the required number of words. More daunting was thinking about what to write. How would one respond to what Lincoln had said? Moreover, as someone who has visited Gettysburg frequently and who had two ancestors present at the battle in 1863, this was as much a personal and philosophical matter as it was a professional opportunity.

Lincoln reminded people that unfinished business remained, and that only by addressing the great task before them could they ensure that those soldiers who had given the last full measure of devotion in bloody battle had not died in vain … and that my ancestors’ service would mean something. What was a great task remaining before them remains one for us as well.

I found my inspiration in the 16th president’s reminder that the cornerstone of the American experiment was the proposition that all men were created equal. Even today we have a great distance to go to turn the promise of equality into reality. After all, what does “created equal” mean? Equal before the law? Equal opportunity for all? The phrase conceals as much as it reveals.

But just as Lincoln called on his fellow Americans to persist, I wanted to remind people today that the same struggle continues, and that it is now left to us to continue that effort and meet Lincoln’s challenge. As for how I went about that, you’ll have to read the book.

Q: How does it feel to have your essay published with those of such well-known people as Steven Spielberg, Jimmy Carter, the presidents Bush, Bill Clinton and others?

A: It is an honor and a privilege to join with such distinguished people from all walks of life as we together considered Lincoln’s legacy. It’s amazing to see how different people responded in such different ways, each in its own way rather telling. Given that the essays appear by alphabetical order of surname, I’m just ahead of Steven Spielberg, so I’ve got that going for me, which is nice.

Q: You are a presidential and Civil War historian and scholar. How did you become interested in this? Why is it important to study the past, particularly the areas in which you specialize?

A: Growing up during the Civil War centennial, I quickly gravitated to having an interest in history, one that my grandmother and parents fostered in various ways, from buying books to going on trips to historic sites.

However, it was not until I was at prep school (Exeter) that I learned the difference between liking history, being interested in it, and being a historian. Working with documents and weaving together evidence to offer an account of what happened, how it happened, and why it happened draws upon so many qualities, including creativity and imagination, as well as the reasoning and analysis usually associated with the discipline.

We can’t argue that history is important to our understanding of who we are and what we want to be unless we show people how learning about the past informs our lives. Moreover, many of the issues debated during the time of the Civil War and Reconstruction are still with us. How do we push for change while maintaining stability and unity? What role do leaders play in identifying and addressing problems?

I recall that in the 1980s someone once observed that my area of study – the Civil War and Reconstruction – held no real relevance for today’s world. Since then, I’ve seen a presidential impeachment, a disputed presidential election, the challenges of war and occupation, and debates over the federal government’s role in economic matters – all issues of as much importance a century and a half ago as they have been in our recent past – demonstrate the need for informed commentary and analysis. I’m pleased that people call on me to draw on my understanding of the past to help us comprehend our present.

Nicole Greason

Director of Marketing and Public Relations , Barrett, The Honors College


New study describes cancer's cheating ways

June 8, 2015

In some ways, cancer cells are like selfish people: They focus on their own goals, even at the expense of the greater good.

At least, that’s one way to summarize a new study that included Athena Aktipis, a researcher at Arizona State University’s Biodesign Institute. She, along with several international colleagues, helped author a paper that explores how cancers can bypass the protective mechanisms used by multicellular forms to ensure their survival and well-being. crested saguaro cactus fanlike irregularities Patterns of abnormal growth in some flowers and plants result in rare features known as fasciations. Here, a crested saguaro cactus displays fanlike irregularities thought to be the result of somatic mutations in their stem cells. Photo by: Creative Commons License Download Full Image

In other words, cancer cells cheat by ignoring common strategies of cooperation to reach their goal. It’s a revelation that’s changing the understanding of cancer.

The study, which was conceived and largely written at the Institute for Advanced Study, or Wissenschaftskolleg, in Berlin, identifies five foundations of multicellularity:

• Inhibiting cell proliferation

• Regulation of cell death

• Division of labor

• Resource transport

• Creation and maintenance of the extracellular environment

“The idea of the five foundations really builds on decades of work in the field of multicellularity evolution,” Aktipis said, referring to a subfield of evolutionary biology concerned with such questions as how cells come together to form higher level entities that have functions of their own.

Without these mechanisms, multicellular organisms – from fungi to humans – could not have evolved into the endless forms we see today. Cancer cells, however, have the capacity to break free of this multicellular tyranny over their behavior.

As the authors note, research and clinical practice to date have focused primarily on the first two violations of the multicellular framework, namely limits to cell proliferation and regulation of cell death. In both cases, cancer appears capable of short-circuiting the built-in multicellular constraints, exhibiting the unchecked proliferation and growth characteristic of cancerous tumors.

The study compares the five foundations of multicellularity with so-called hallmarks of cancer, a set of underlying principles governing cancer behavior, proposed by researchers in 2000.

According to the cancer-hallmarks framework, cancer cells supply their own growth signals, resist inhibitory signals limiting their growth, resist programmed cell death (known as apoptosis), multiply indefinitely, stimulate blood vessels to supply tumors with nutrients (angiogenesis) and activate invasion of local tissues and the spread of cancer cells to distant sites (invasion and metastasis).

“For us, putting together the hallmarks of cancer with the foundations of multicellularity suggested that maybe these more economic forms of cheating have been neglected as components of cancer and contributors to cancer progression,” Aktipis said. “Potentially we may be able to do better by creating diagnostics and measures of those types of economic cheating.”

Although the study found evidence of the five foundations of multicellularity across the tree of life, it is clear that mechanisms for suppressing cheating are not equally divided among all life forms. For instance, animals appear to be more susceptible to cancers than plants and other multicellular organisms. This may be due to higher metabolic rates that leave animals more vulnerable to cheating in resource allocation and division of labor, while animal circulatory systems may enhance an organism’s risk of metastasis.

“I think of it as the economics of multicellularity,” Aktipis said. “How do the resources get where they need to go, how does the labor get done that needs to get done to make the body work, how does the shared environment get taken care of and maintained? These things are important and perhaps underappreciated aspects of maintaining an effective multicellular body and suppressing cancer that would otherwise evolve.”

A greater focus on cancer’s subversion of the economic foundations of multicellularity may give rise to innovative new strategies for identifying cancer, charting its trajectory and fashioning effective treatments.

“This paper is a call to action for the evolutionary biology, comparative genomic and evolution of multicellularity communities to really come together and to collect data that will allow us to answer some of these big, outstanding questions about cancer suppression,” Aktipis said.

“Together we can look to cancer across life for answers about the nature of cancer and new tools that can be used for cancer prevention in humans.”

Athena Aktipis is a researcher in the Biodesign Institute’s Center for Evolution and Medicine and assistant professor in ASU's Department of Psychology. Her forthcoming book is titled: "Evolution in the Flesh: Cancer and the Transformation of Life," published by Princeton University Press.

A longer version of this story can be found here.

Richard Harth

Science writer, Biodesign Institute at ASU