Virtual tourism, Americans' relationship with wilderness highlight outstanding grad’s parks, recreation study

Longtime interest in geography led her to pursue degree program

April 29, 2022

Editor's note: This story is part of a series of profiles of notable spring 2022 graduates.

As a Chinese student attending the Hainan University-Arizona State University International Tourism College (HAITC), Xuecong Fan discovered something fascinating about Americans: They deeply appreciate the wilderness that at one time comprised all of this country.   Xuecong Fan, Hainan University-Arizona State University Tourism College, spring 2022, Watts College Outstanding Graduate Xuecong Fan, Hainan University-Arizona State University Tourism College, spring 2022 Watts College Outstanding Graduate. Photo courtesy Xuecong Fan Download Full Image

“Americans take wilderness as a way to find themselves,” said Fan, the spring 2022 Outstanding Graduate from HAITC, who said Americans’ view of wilderness goes beyond expressions of national pride. “I think in America people want to go out into the wilderness, to appreciate, to conquer the wilderness, which is different from other countries,” she said.

Fan, who is from Anyang in the Chinese province of Henan, is earning her ASU Bachelor of Science degree in parks and recreation management, and a bachelor’s degree in urban-rural planning from Hainan University (HNU).

Fan assisted in several research projects with her professors, and has engaged in research of her own. She has participated in several international conferences and recently developed a research paper along with one of her professors analyzing the evolution of travel behaviors following the pandemic. She recently presented this research as first author at the 43rd Annual Southeast Environment and Recreation Research Conference. The paper is currently undergoing its second round of reviews with the Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism. 

She said her longtime interest in geography helped her to better understand how to manage parks and recreation activities in a way that inspires participants to take advantage of what their local areas have to offer.

One area of tourism that interests her, she said, is virtual tourism, where people experience a place via electronic means. While advances in virtual tourism should encourage people to visit a location in person, she said she has learned from talking to travelers that it is not likely to replace the real thing.

“People do not think it will replace real travel. They can’t interact with local people and eat local food, experience the weather and climate,” Fan said. “Real travel is more about the experience. When they take the train, the bus, they meet people and talk with strangers. It’s totally different.”

Read on to learn more about Fan’s HAITC journey:

Question: What was your “aha” moment, when you realized you wanted to study the field you majored in?

Answer: I don’t think there is an “aha” moment for me because I liked geography very much since junior high school, and I decided that I wanted to major in geography in senior high school. In China, tourism and recreation-related majors are subordinate subjects to geography. And because of China's education system, in addition to the compulsory classes (Chinese, math and English), high school students can only choose liberal arts (history, geography, politics) or science (physics, chemistry and biology), which will limit students’ choice of major at a university.

As a liberal arts student, I can only choose human geography, tourism and other majors, rather than meteorology, geology, landform and other related subjects. But fortunately, I like tourism and human geography very much, so I chose this major.

So for me, it's me who chose this major, rather than finding out that I like it very much after I started to learn it. Also I can say that I kind of fell in love with my major “with time” rather than “love at first sight.”

Q: What’s something you learned while at HAITC — in the classroom or otherwise — that surprised you, that changed your perspective?

A: I was most impressed with the course PRM 380: Wilderness and Parks in America. In the course textbook, “Wilderness and the American Mind,” I learned what wilderness and nature mean to Americans, and the importance of recreational spaces to the community and society. It breaks my stereotype of leisure and the natural landscape, and it emphasizes the balances between society and nature and between life and leisure. Moreover, it changed my attitude towards life to some extent. For now, leisure is no longer an option for me, but a necessary part of life.

Q: Why did you choose HAITC?

A: I remember that I read the description of the major courses on HAITC's official website at that time, and I found that it is different from the curriculum of most other schools in China. It has a more humanistic spirit, which made me very interested in this project.

Q: Which professor(s) taught you the most important lesson while at HAITC?

A:  PRM 120: Leisure and Quality of Life, taught by Assistant Professor Junyu Lu, is my favorite course. It demonstrated many classic theories related to leisure, which is interesting and very helpful for my academic research. I remember the main assignment for this class requires us to conduct two interviews and analyze them based on the theories we have learned. This is my first attempt at some academic-related task. Under the guidance of Dr. Lu, I found that I can use theories to explain some behaviors in life, which makes me have a stronger interest in my major. And that impressed me a lot. This experience can be seen as the inspiration for my research interests.

Later, I was fortunate to be selected to be a research assistant of Dr. Lu, and we also conducted research on the changes in Chinese travel behavior after the pandemic. The interview and qualitative analysis skills taught in PRM 120 were applied, and a theory learned in the course was also used to explain one of our new findings.

Q. What experience(s) do you feel impacted you the most during the program?

A. I have attended some international conferences. For example, several months before, I had attended the AAG, the American Association of Geographers Annual Meeting, and I was the co-chair of one of the stations of the meeting. It was very impressive and it was my first time to be the chair of one international meeting, so I think it was preparing me to know such meetings and I appreciate it. 

Q. What skills have you learned during your time in the HAITC program?

Xuecong Fan, Hainan University-Arizona State University Tourism College, spring 2022, Watts College, Outstanding Graduate

Xuecong Fan. Photo courtesy Xuecong Fan

A. HAITC provided me with many opportunities to learn a variety of skills, including some basic skills such as how to use Microsoft Office, PowerPoint, Excel and Photoshop. Also, I acquired major-related skills, such as using ArcGIS (a software used to make maps, analyze spatial data and collaborate across teams), drawing, urban planning and academic-related skills such as qualitative data collection. I also learned skills in writing essays and English academic papers and some skills that (I now use in) daily life.

For example, I can make great slides (that are) logical, professional and good-looking. Also, I can present in English fluidly and confidently. It is from the practice of each assignment from all of my classes in HAITC, I think. Also, during my experience in the Psychology Center in HAITC, which is the student team, I think, I attended a Hainan Psychological Association psychological consultant training course; and also, I have learned how to organize competitions and conferences with my team members in my daily work. So, I think I am very lucky and proud that I am able to learn so many new skills. 

Q. Do you have a favorite real-world experience using these skills, such as during an internship, volunteer or research opportunity?

A. I’m glad to say that all of the skills I just mentioned have been used in my real-life experience and in my research; (in) the graduate thesis experiment I have used both quantitative and qualitative research methods, and also some psychological related theory, and I plan to write this academic thesis in English … and I think my work on this thesis with my team members is useful.

Also, I have gotten some opportunities to participate in some academic competitions and international conferences, and also, I was in the top three in undergraduate research in the West Federation of the International Council on Hotel, Restaurant and Institutional Education in 2022, recognized for good research and also good presentation. I have used ArcGIS and drawing skills in an opportunity to participate in the planning of Tunchang in Hainan, Haikou. So, all of this has been practiced. 

Q: What was your favorite spot to study, meet friends or to just think about life?

A: My favorite (place) to study is the teaching building of HAITC, i.e. Tian-Building. There are large desks, a sufficient number of plugs and air conditioning which is a must for Hainan. And I like to walk slowly back to the dormitory by myself after the self-study. This is the time that only belongs to myself, and I can think about a lot of things with the chirping of cicadas and the sound of the wind blowing through the leaves. My friends and I love good food, so many restaurants near the school are our go-to spots for gatherings.

Q: What are your plans after graduation?

A: Thanks to the recommendation of the excellent teachers and professors in HAITC, and also my good ranking, I have obtained the qualification of postgraduate recommendation and got an offer from Nankai University, which ranks (in the) top 3 in tourism and leisure management in China.

At the same time, the experience in HAITC has made me discover my strong interest in research, especially leisure and tourism-related research. Therefore, I hope that I can be a lifelong learner, discover more tourism and leisure phenomena and make some meaningful theoretical and managerial contributions.

Q: If someone gave you $40 million to solve one problem on our planet, what would you tackle?

A:  With climate change and continued global warming, many tourist attractions are disappearing, such as Australia's Great Barrier Reef and the Maldives. There are also some natural landscapes that are gradually disappearing with natural erosion, such as some sea-eroded arch bridges, murals, etc. I hope to use this money to set up a virtual tourism research institution, dedicated to recording the disappearing attractions on the Earth, preserving the data and enhance the quality and popularity of virtual tourism equipment.

If there is money left, I would like to record some less accessible attractions, such as those in countries at war, or difficult for people to visit, such as poles or tropical rainforests.

Written by HAITC student support specialist Brynn Kowalski of the School of Community Resources and Development and Mark J. Scarp, media relations officer for the Watts College of Public Service and Community Solutions.

A sharper image for proteins

April 29, 2022

Proteins may be the most important and varied biomolecules within living systems. These strings of amino acids, assuming complex three-dimensional forms, are essential for the growth and maintenance of tissue, the initiation of thousands of biochemical reactions, and protecting the body from pathogens through the immune system. They play a central role in health and disease, and they are primary targets for pharmaceutical drugs.

To fully understand proteins and their myriad functions, researchers have developed sophisticated means to see and study them through advanced microscopy, improving light detection, imaging software and the integration of advanced hardware systems. Graphic illustration of the experimental setup for performing evanescent scattering microscopy. This graphic shows the experimental setup for performing evanescent scattering microscopy. The technique is a label-free method for sensitive imaging of biomolecules, including proteins. A beam of laser light is directed at a molecular sample with the proper angle to produce a condition known as total internal reflection. The resulting evanescent wave can excite the molecules at the glass-liquid interface, allowing for exceptionally precise imaging. Download Full Image

In a new study, corresponding author Shaopeng Wang and his colleagues at Arizona State University describe a new technique that promises to revolutionize the imaging of proteins and other vital biomolecules, allowing these tiny entities to be visualized with unprecedented clarity and by simpler means than existing methods.

"The method we report in this study uses normal cover glass instead of gold-coated cover glass, which has two advantages over our previously reported label-free, single-protein imaging method," Wang says. "It is compatible with fluorescence imaging for in situ cross validation, and it reduces the light-induced heating effect that could harm the biological samples. Pengfei Zhang, an outstanding postdoctoral researcher in my group, is the technical lead of this project."

Wang has a joint faculty position in the Biodesign Center for Bioelectronics and Biosensors and School of Biological and Health Systems Engineering. The group’s research findings appear in the current issue of the journal Nature Communications.

The new method, known as evanescent scattering microscopy (ESM), is based on an optical property first recognized in antiquity, known as total internal reflection. This occurs when light passes from a high-refractive medium (like glass) into a low-refractive medium (like water).

When the angle of incident light is moved away from the perpendicular (relative to the surface), it eventually reaches the “critical angle,” resulting in all the incident light being reflected, rather than passing through the second medium. (To properly illuminate biological samples, laser light is used.)

ASU researcher Shaopeng Wang smiling and wearing a white lab coat.

Shaopeng Wang is a researcher in the Biodesign Center for Bioelectronics and Biosensors and the School of Biological and Health Systems Engineering at ASU.

Total internal reflection produces an evanescent field, which can excite cells or molecules like proteins at the glass-water interface, when such molecules are affixed to a cover glass, allowing researchers to visualize them in startling detail.

Previous methods commonly label the biomolecules of interest with fluorescent tags known as fluorophores, to better image them. This process can interfere with the subtle interactions being observed and requires cumbersome sample preparation. The ESM technique is a label-free imaging method requiring no fluorescent dye or gold coating for sample slides.

Instead, the method exploits subtle irregularities in the surface of the cover glass to produce images of razor-sharp contrast. This is achieved by imaging the interference of evanescent light scattered by the single-molecule samples and the rough texture of the cover glass.

The use of evanescent wave scattering allows samples, including proteins, to be probed at extremely shallow depth, typically less than 100 microns. This allows ESM to create an optical slice, with dimensions comparable to a thin electron microscopy section.

The new study describes the use of ESM to detect four model proteins: bovine serum albumin (BSA), mouse immunoglobulin G (IgG), human immunoglobulin A (IgA) and human immunoglobulin M (IgM).

Protein-protein interactions, including the rapid binding and dissociation of individual proteins, were observed in a series of experiments. Understanding such binding kinetics is essential for the design of safer and more effective drugs. The researchers also used ESM to keenly observe conformational changes in DNA, further demonstrating the power and versatility of the new method.

Richard Harth

Science writer, Biodesign Institute at ASU