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New ASU research finds that some security measures make students feel less safe in their schools

September 11, 2018

Professor discovers that lots of indoor cameras make students feel less supported

New research by an Arizona State University professor shows that some methods of addressing security in schools may actually make students feel less safe.

A new paper by Sarah Lindstrom Johnson, an assistant professor in the T. Denny Sanford School of Social and Family Dynamics, showed that high numbers of security cameras inside schools were associated with students having lower feelings of safety as well as lower feelings of support and equity at their school.

“The big take-home to this is that there may be a cost to these security measures if they are not done well,” said Lindstrom Johnson, a former high school teacher in Baltimore who studies school environments and how they affect student learning.

Interestingly, the study found differences between white and black students’ perceptions. The black students viewed the security cameras inside school less negatively than their white peers. The researchersBesides Lindstrom Johnson, the research team included Jessika Bottiani and Catherine Bradshaw, both of the University of Virginia, and Tracy Waasdorp of Johns Hopkins University. hypothesized that the black students might see the cameras as a way of documenting what happens to them.

“To some extent they might see it as protective,” she said. Black students made up about 29 percent of the survey sample.

Sarah Lindstrom Johnson

The findings come as states consider increasing security measures in the wake of several school shootings over the past year. The National Conference of State Legislatures reports that 87 bills were passed nationwide to address school safety this year.

The study, published in the Journal of Adolescent Health, included more than 54,000 students in 98 middle and high schools in Maryland who answered surveys as well as independent assessments of the school physical environment including security measures.

Lindstrom Johnson and the team measuredThe environment was measured using the School Assessment for Environmental Typology, or SAfETy, a tool that Lindstrom Johnson co-developed. She is now working on making that instrument available to schools on a smartphone app. three kinds of security: outdoor cameras, indoor cameras and security personnel. Then they measured students’ perceptions of their schools in three areas: safety, support and equity. For the purposes of the study, security personnel were defined as anyone in a uniform, but Lindstrom Johnson said that she knows most of them were sworn law officers.

“We made a distinction between inside and outside cameras and found that the perceptions operated entirely differently, which is something that no one has ever shown before,” she said.

“High levels of cameras inside the school were negatively related to students’ perception of safety, students’ perception of support and their perception of equity.”

Lindstrom Johnson said that it’s likely students see indoor cameras, typically deployed in the entrances, hallways, stairwells and cafeterias but not in the classrooms, as a surveillance measure to monitor misbehavior, like cutting class, and as a way to get them in trouble.

Outdoor cameras were positively related to support, but had no positive or negative association with safety or equity in the students’ eyes.

The presence of security personnel was positively related to safety among students, she said.

“There’s a lot more work to do around these findings with security officers, including unpacking their role in school discipline, what weapons are they carrying, and their training in working with adolescents,” said Lindstrom Johnson, who added that Arizona is one of a few states nationwide to have state-level programs to train school resource officers.

Previous studies to understand the impact of school security measures have found mixed results, she said, and are typically based on self-reporting of security measures by students or school administrators. Her research is one of the few studies that objectively measure security measures. The team started the research in 2015 but decided to delay publication until they could add more schools, to ensure that these important findings were accurate.

The main message is that school administrators should carefully weigh how they spend resources for keeping students safe, she said.

“This work suggests that cameras outside the school and security officers might improve students' feelings of safety and support, but we also have a body of research that shows that evidence-based mental health resources in schools are effective,” she said. “They might be effective in reducing school-rampage shootings — that evidence is hard to come across — but we know they’re effective in reducing student behavior problems and improving student academic outcomes.

“If you’re asking me what do I put my money into to make schools safer, it’s around supporting students’ mental health.”

Top image by Pixabay

Mary Beth Faller

Reporter , ASU News


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National Review's Jonah Goldberg discusses ‘Suicide of the West’

September 11, 2018

ASU lecture series confronts America’s civic crisis with lessons in statesmanship for common good

American democracy is eroding quickly, and it’s not being threatened by an outside force or another country. We’re doing it to ourselves — “identity politics” and hyper-partisanship are killing independent opinion and the free exchange of ideas, according to prominent journalist and media figure Jonah Goldberg.

“The problem we have today is that we’re supposed to take people as they are, how you find them. Instead we are reverting back to a very natural tendency of turning people who look differently than us, act differently than us, into abstractions. We are demonizing,” said Goldberg, senior editor at National Review and a Fellow at the American Enterprise Institute, in front of a crowd of about 250 people at Old Main in Tempe on Tuesday. “This has been going on in the academic left for a long time and this breaks my heart, but conservatives, right-wingers, are embracing it, too.”

Video by Jamie Ell/ASU Now

Goldberg, also a nationally syndicated columnist and a columnist for the Los Angeles Times, was the inaugural speaker for the 2018-19 lecture series hosted by Arizona State University’s School of Civic and Economic Thought and LeadershipThe School of Civic and Economic Thought and Leadership is a new school at ASU that blends classical liberal arts education with experiential learning to prepare students to become leaders. Students confront diverse views on political, economic and moral philosophy; American political ideals; statesmanship and entrepreneurship.. Co-sponsored by the Walter Cronkite School of Journalism and Mass Communication and the Sandra Day O’Connor College of Law, this year’s theme is “Polarization and Civil Disagreement: Confronting America’s Civic Crisis.”

“The planning committee felt a duty ... to address one of the most contentious issues in higher education today: the hyper-polarization, extending to violence, about appropriate speech and invited speakers,” said Paul Carrese, director of the School of Civic and Economic Thought and Leadership. “We believe there is both intellectual and civic work to do in confronting this deterioration in higher education and in America’s capacity for self-governance.”

Carrese said selected speakers for this year’s series represent both ends of the political and social spectrum, hailing from academia and American public life and offering robust civil debate.

The majority of Goldberg’s Tuesday discourse stemmed from his new book, “Suicide of the West: How the Rebirth of Tribalism, Populism, Nationalism, and Identity Politics is Destroying American Democracy.”

Goldberg said that for 250,000 years, people existed on less than $3 a day. Only in the past 300 years has society reached a point where most people have been lifted out of mass poverty. He added that capitalism (which he called “The Miracle”) has produced an unbelievable “bounty of riches” and an “explosion of prosperity.”

However, he said, politics and divisiveness is threatening to turn it all upside down.

Goldberg said that lived experience, character and personality have been reduced to “thin abstractions” that flatten an otherwise dynamic populace and create tribes based on gender, race and party with little regard for diversity of opinion.

“What we need is variety. Let your flag fly free,” Goldberg said. “We have all of these arguments about going left toward socialism or right toward nationalism. But when you’re at the top of the mountain, left and right lose their meaning because the only direction you can go is down back into the muck.”

Goldberg said Americans are ungratefully throwing away what made the West the free and prosperous place it is today.

“We teach people not to be grateful for what we have,” Goldberg said. “If you don’t teach people gratitude, the opposite comes pouring in, which is a sense of entitlement and resentment. We teach people, ‘I gotta get mine.’”

Despite his diagnosis of civilization’s current ills, Goldberg did offer up some solutions and left the audience with this:

“There is no better system. There should be this understanding that we’ve got it pretty good," Goldberg said. "Have a little gratitude for where you are, because things could be a helluva lot worse."

The lecture series will continue on Oct. 11 with Mark Lilla’s presentation of “Identity and Citizenship.”

Top photo: Jonah Goldberg speaks on the "Suicide of the West" at an event hosted by ASU's School of Civic and Economic Thought and Leadership on Tuesday evening at Old Main on the Tempe campus. Photo by Marcus Chormicle/ASU Now

Reporter , ASU News