Researchers meet at the intersection of public management and scientific enterprise

Center for Organization Research and Design creates Experimental Lab to better connect with other scholars, larger community

January 20, 2023

Scholars at Arizona State University’s Center for Organization Research and Design (CORD) are working at the intersection of public management and the scientific enterprise while “refreshing and reimagining” the center’s nationally and internationally respected role as a leader in public organization design, its new director said.

Julia Melkers, a Foundation Professor in the School of Public Affairs (SPA), arrived from the Georgia Institute of Technology to lead CORD in August 2022. The center was founded in 2013 as a leading research engine for public management in the science environment. Abstract graphic of an organizational chart represented by differently colored squares and rectangles. Image by Gerd Altmann/Pixabay Download Full Image

“CORD is at a place where we're building on a strong foundation of global and national recognition of its work,” Melkers said. “We are also refreshing and reimagining it as we come out of COVID. We are in the midst of some strategic thinking and engagement with affiliates at ASU and around the globe.”

One important addition to the center was the appointment of SPA Associate Professor Ulrich Jensen as CORD’s associate director, Melkers said. Jensen’s background as an experimentalist has led to the recent creation of the CORD Experimental Lab.

“SPA is one of the few public management schools where we have a strong cohort of experimentalists, something new for CORD to develop a broader identity,” Jensen said.

“We want to connect more with the Watts College and across campus with scholars interested in creating public value through research at the nexus of public policy and human behavior, studying the many ways they intersect. This research can advance public value by informing organizational design in public institutions, from science-based to other policy domains.”

For example, in the scientific realm, CORD is collaborating with ASU’s Center for Science, Technology and Environmental Policy Studies and colleagues in Europe to examine how international collaborative teams have adopted social innovations in response to how challenges and restrictions brought by the COVID-19 pandemic and its aftermath have affected scientific inquiry.

“It’s a fascinating study of how scientific teams interact, how organizations are structured, form their policies and rules, and who leads in times of disruption,” she said.

Another illustration from the local setting is that CORD’s Experimental Lab is also working with local governments and community organizations. One partnership with Scottsdale city leaders involves creating a continuous collaboration with experiments designed to understand public service delivery and strengthen their organization capacity. For example, a challenge many local governments face is recruiting and retaining talented and diverse young professionals. This project has also helped to bring other SPA faculty into the center to create a greater collaborative community of scholars and students, Melkers said.

CORD is also expanding its reach across ASU to expand transdisciplinary research opportunities. Melkers and other CORD faculty have begun a collaboration with another new ASU faculty member in philosophy on a project that looks at intellectual humility in science, bringing both philosophy and psychology into the discussion of organization design.

“We are expanding the CORD scholarly community on campus to allow us to do new and interesting important work that brings people together from different perspectives,” she said. “This brings new ways of looking at problems, at research questions, methods and even new types of data. It’s an exciting future.”

CORD is also a global player, having been a catalyst to bring together scholars from countries such as Denmark, Spain, Finland, Belgium, Mexico and the United Kingdom.

“We will continue to be a visible player in the international public management and science policy communities. CORD is engaged with international conferences as members of scientific committees and research panels. CORD has hosted and will continue to host international scholars, who visit us and bring fresh ideas and exposure,” said Melkers, who noted the center’s scholars will be attending two conferences in Europe soon.

“We are looking to build stronger and more recognizable networks with other centers around the country and the world,” she said. CORD scholars sit on several committees on the international, national, state and local levels.

“As part of ASU, an institution that is a dynamic leader in innovation, we have some really great opportunities here to do great work,” she said. “Our research can help lead social innovation in finding solutions to local as well as global programs, including here at ASU. We also give students opportunities to be meaningfully involved in exciting and important work.”

Melkers came to ASU in 2022 from the School of Public Policy at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta. Jensen came to ASU in 2016 after receiving his PhD degree at Aarhus University in Denmark.

CORD and SPA are based at the Watts College of Public Service and Community Solutions.

Mark J. Scarp

Media Relations Officer, Watts College of Public Service and Community Solutions


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Top edtech trends in 2023 and the ASU example

January 19, 2023

In spite of our tendency to break things down into tidy time frames, like a new year or academic semester, change constantly turns over the status quo. Especially in the world of technology, where disruptive innovation may evolve rapidly from the fringe to the mainstream.

“At ASU’s Enterprise Technology, we work in spaces where technology is not just revolutionizing higher education, but the world at large,” said Lev Gonick, chief information officer at Arizona State University. “We strive to be proactive, not reactive, to new paradigms changing the ways in which we work, learn and thrive.”

The following technology trends — as illuminated by Fierce Education (plus one unique to Enterprise Technology) — are what leading technologists, university leadership, the ASU community and beyond are facing today. And not so coincidentally, ASU is on the cutting edge of these educational spaces.

“The world, and by extension ASU learners, are shaped by technologies like those represented here by examples of our work,” Gonick shared.

Trend No. 1 — Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) is having its moment in higher education with the introduction of ChatGPT in the past few weeks. The AI program is gaining attention worldwide with the capacity to produce highly sophisticated writing. With the capability of linear storytelling, identification of fallacies, and grammar and syntax skills, ChatGPT far outclasses the writing AI that has come before it. 

Beyond this example, AI is at play in numerous facets of university learning, working and living. In an entrepreneurial and community impact example, students working at ASU’s Learning Futures are using AI technology to provide real-time support to visually impaired students in the classroom. (Learn more about how this group of students is exploring the use of 5G, classroom cameras and artificial intelligence to power the Braille board.)

While higher education leaders are still understanding the impact and implications of such a disruptive technology, ASU is embracing the opportunity to explore this cutting-edge application of AI through the lens of responsible innovation for meaningful impact.

Last year, ASU Enterprise Technology announced a new partnership to become a Verizon 5G Innovation Hubthe partnership brings Verizon’s 5G Ultra Wideband speed to the Creativity Commons at ASU’s Tempe campus.  

Trend No. 2 — Chatbots

As an extension of AI principles, digital chatbots simulate human-like conversations with users via text or chat messages. 

With one of the most advanced chatbot strategies, ASU is working to find smarter, more meaningful ways to communicate with learners. And one area for impact focuses on financial aid services. 

The ASU Experience Center, which provides 24/7 support across various ASU services, now utilizes chatbots to streamline the self-serving student experience and answer financial aid questions faster. 

Trend No. 3 — Extended reality

Exploration through education: This is the fourth realm of learning outlined by ASU President Michael Crow that calls for more immersive learning experiences. Technologies like extended reality (XR), virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) are often used in this space.

Extended reality is a collective term for digital spaces, such as VR and AR. ASU is leading the way in immersive learning experiences through a partnership with Dreamscape Immersive, the world’s leading virtual reality company. Together, the teams have launched Dreamscape Learn, which offers fully immersive VR learning. Last year, for example, students taking introductory biology experienced DSL as part of their learning. 

“At ASU, we’re blending real and virtual worlds to effectively remove barriers to where, when and how learning happens,” shared Gonick. “Through the use of technology, we can enhance, amplify and facilitate deeper and more authentic learning experiences.”

Dreamscape Learn is held inside the Creativity Commons on ASU’s Tempe campus. Directly next door is a space where additional XR experiences are being designed and developed for students by students at Learning Futures.  

One such project is Huddle, which offers classroom experiences in VR. And last semester, students in HST 130 slipped on the Oculus headset, strapped on the hand controllers and were transported to trenches of World War I inside the Huddle experience. 

Trend No. 4 — Digital twins

Simply put, digital twins are virtual representations of an object, system or space. These indistinguishable digital counterparts have been used for decades. 

However, building off technology trends noted in the first installment — including virtual reality, artificial intelligence and metaverses — digital twins are having a resurgence.

At ASU, students are developing a digital twin of the campus. The ASUniverse models, in full 3D scale, the architecture, classrooms and even the Southwest landscape of ASU’s Tempe campus, accessible from anywhere. Future use cases of the digital twin include touring the Tempe campus, attending class, enjoying live entertainment and more.

Additionally, the ASU Smart City Cloud Innovation Center, powered by Amazon Web Services, is developing a digital twin of downtown Phoenix for improved and strategic urban planning.

Trend No. 5 — The metaverse

In keeping with the previous two trends in virtual communities, the global metaverse is extending beyond organizational silos to connect people in a digital world. A main mission of the recently established Zoom Innovation Lab at ASU is to extend Zoom into the ASUniverse.

“The first-of-its-kind Zoom Innovation Lab at ASU will combine the resources available across the ASU Public Enterprise — including the university’s expertise, research, networks and learning assets — with Zoom’s technology and talent to create solutions that better connect society,” Gonick shared in a recent interview with Forbes.

Additional opportunities for more immersive experiences inside the ASUniverse include sporting events, telehealth counseling services and more.

Trend No. 6 — Internet of Things

The Internet of Things (IoT) refers to the connection of previously unconnected devices, processes and services to the web and each other. This network of connectedness is often described as “smart,” and aligns with ASU’s high priority to play a leading role in cultivating smart campuses, cities and regions. 

“The university has risen as a hotbed of innovation, research and experimentation,” says Gonick in response to the power of partnerships. “Our ability to instrument our campuses' digital infrastructure to support engagement, personalization of learning journeys and public safety are all extensible to meet the needs and priorities of our neighbors.”

At ASU Enterprise Technology, two notable partnerships are helping us advance this work. The Cox Connected Environments Collaboratory tests multiple types of networks to better connect the ASU campus and beyond. Such networks include Bluetooth 5, LoRA (Long Range), CBRS (Citizens Broadband Radio Service) and Cox Optical Internet. 

And the Smart City Cloud Innovation Center is helping to lead efforts to advance the use of smart technology from campus to the community. Known as the CIC, the team focuses on using emerging smart technology for local nonprofits and municipalities. 

Trend No. 7 — Blockchain

Today, much of the national discussions around blockchain center on cryptocurrencies. However, this breakthrough technology creates new opportunities to reimagine credential management for the learner, institutions and organizations.

Two initiatives are underway at ASU Enterprise Technology to bring credentials into the 21st century using distributed technology, including blockchain. The first focuses on creating a network — both digital infrastructure and community — to build a validated and immutable repository of learning.

To do so, the Trusted Learner Network is working to reimagine the traditional digital credential model by placing learners and their data at the center. 

Utilizing distributed, web 3.0 semantic technologies, the Trusted Learner Network creates a durable, immutable ledger of learning that allows learners to easily view and manage their credentials. 

And in order for learners to capture their diverse records of learning as verified credentials, they need a digital wallet. Enter ASU Pocket.

The digital wallet and portfolio is being designed and developed by teams at Enterprise Technology. Learners will be able to capture evidence of their learning inside their wallet and connect their skills to future jobs.

Both ASU Pocket and the TLN were featured in the 2023 SmartReport Ecosystem Map, released by iDatafy; the map (included above) reflects a current landscape of digital wallet and learner educational records (LER).

Trend No. 8 — Cloud computing

Over the past few years, ASU has embarked on a massive undertaking to become a fully cloud-based infrastructure. 

Cloud computing offers the storage of large datasets at significantly faster speeds with lower costs. That matters in a world that is increasingly moving online, where the amount of data that is available to capture and store continues to grow exponentially.

The cloud allows for a flexible and accessible digital infrastructure capable of evolving to the demands of our community. One such example involves a collaboration with the Arizona Board of Regents and the AZTransfer process for all state schools.

Trend No. 9 — Gamification

In recent years, the development of an interactive, gamified learning community has gained momentum on campus among learners of all backgrounds.

Now, the combination of Sun Devil Rewards, previously a standalone app, with the ASU Mobile App has integrated the playful approach with other helpful, informative services and resources. Creating a one-stop shop for students to connect, navigate campus and more while accumulating Pitchfork points to become eligible for big prizes.

Trend No. 10 — Digital equity

In recent years, digital equity has risen to the national agenda. And while this was not listed in the edtech trends article referenced above, it has surfaced as a unique opportunity for universities to play a critical role in advancing digital inclusion.

“In realizing the aspirations set forth by our charter, the university remains committed to increasing access, excellence and impact for all those we serve — and we know that technology plays a critical role in this mission,” says Gonick. “As such, it is imperative that all have access to reliable, high-speed internet to fully participate in the ways we work, learn and live online.”

A recent $34.6 million investment in ASU and its collaborators from Maricopa County to narrow the digital divide is proof of the importance of this work. The funding will be used to advance broadband, community support, equipment and training across Maricopa County, which includes the metro Phoenix area, bringing reliable, high-speed internet access to under- and unserved communities. 

This funding makes ASU home to the largest university-led digital equity initiative in the country.

This exploration of the intersection of higher education and technology is a small window into the consistent changes shephered at ASU Enterprise Technology.

Editorial specialist , University Technology Office

What can human remains tell us about climate change? A lot, according to a new research article

January 17, 2023

Learning how people across the world coped with rapid climate change (RCC) throughout history can help current populations prepare, said a group of scientists.  

Their paper on the subject, “Climate change, human health, and resilience in the Holocene,” was published in the January issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS). The article outlines what worked — and what didn’t work — historically for humans during climate change.  Map of continents with different colors indicating temperature. Photo courtesy iStock/Getty Images Download Full Image

Using case studies, the scientists examined human remains and relationships between people during times of RCC. The article discusses how climate change had an impact on health, food stability, disease, migration and dispelled myths of violence during hard times.

“The human remains themselves are vital for explorations of the impact of climate and environmental change on individuals and groups in the past,” said Jane Buikstra, co-author and Regents Professor at the School of Human Evolution and Social Change at Arizona State University. “The archaeological record provides a window into both short- and long-term changes in human groups as a result of different forms of climate change.”

Professor Gwen Robbins Schug, with the University of North Carolina at Greensboro, was lead author of the paper. Co-authors included an international group of bioarchaeologists and archaeologists, including four professors from the School of Human Evolution and Social Change who are members of the Center for Bioarchaeological Research

“We as bioarchaeologists have time depth that we can access by looking at human remains from past populations who’ve gone through things like climate change, who’ve experienced immigration or outmigration,” said Brenda Baker, associate professor of bioarchaeology at the School of Human Evolution and Social Change and co-author of the article. “And we have a handle on how people coped with that in the past, and that can help inform decisions we make today.” 

So, what worked the best? Flexibility. 

Diverse pathways to resilience relevant to the UN Sustainable Development Goals.

Diverse pathways to resilience relevant to the U.N. Sustainable Development Goals. Graphic courtesy PNAS

“Our research demonstrates the consequences of climate change events in human history have been most destructive for hierarchical, urban societies that lack flexibility to respond to environmental challenges,” the authors said in a press release. “Small-scale communities fare best when they maintain traditional knowledge of local ecology and diverse subsistence practices, are able to be mobile when circumstances require it, and when they sustain mutually beneficial relationships with neighboring communities.” 

Examples of flexibility included incorporating new plants and animals as the climate changed, moving from a very large group of people into smaller societies to live and having a power distribution so not one person, or group of people, had control. 

Another important result from the study are the misconceptions throughout history that climate change directly caused violence among people. The researchers explained that violence is not always a consequence — it mainly happened in large, hierarchical urbanized societies where socioeconomic inequality existed. 

Along with an increased risk of violence, larger, less flexible urbanized societies were also at an increased risk for disease. One case study example used is that of the Black Death in England. The scientists explained that mental stress and overcrowding may have weakened people physically before the plague arrived.  

“Bioarchaeology confirms that environmental migration, competition, interpersonal violence and societal collapse are not inevitable in the face of rapid climate change,” said Robbins Schug. “It is important to incorporate anthropological insights into policy and planning efforts to avoid dangerous popular misconceptions about human nature and human evolution. Social, cultural and historical factors all play a role in shaping human responses to climate and environmental change.”

Professors Kelly Knudson and Christopher Stojanowski with the School of Human Evolution and Social Change were also co-authors of the article. 

Nicole Pomerantz

Communications specialist, School of Human Evolution and Social Change


ASU researchers explore modeling accessibility solutions in new paper

January 13, 2023

From subatomic particles to the formation of galaxies, computational modeling has given previously incalculable insight into how the world works. In a recent article published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Arizona State University Professor and Associate Director of the School of Complex Adaptive Systems Michael Barton and his co-authors explore the importance of this methodology and propose new ways to make modeling software and code more accessible.  

“Modeling and simulation are becoming a cornerstone of modern science in many fields. Yet the code that creates these digital laboratories is still largely inaccessible to the public or even other scientists,” Barton said. Laptop pictured with coding on the screen. In a recent article published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, ASU Professor Michael Barton and his co-authors explore the importance of computational modeling and propose new ways to make modeling software and code more accessible. Photo courtesy Pixabay Download Full Image

The article explains that no current standards exist regarding the sharing of modeling source codes alongside research results. Recent guidelines encourage researchers to share experimental data, but the equally important need to share the code for models they used to obtain that data is still not generally recognized.

The researchers who contributed to this paper, including Barton, Allen Lee, Marco Janssen and Laura Swantek from the ASU School of Complex Adaptive Systems, explain that because these processes are not accessible, digital experiments can be difficult to replicate. Subsequent researchers may attempt to reverse engineer code to craft a comparable model, or adapt existing models to suit their experiment, but these approaches can be inefficient or inaccurate. 

In this paper, the authors advocate for accessible computational modeling software to address these concerns of efficiency and replicability using the acronym FAIR — research materials should be findable, accessible, interoperable and reusable. Barton described this endeavor as “democratizing advanced technology.”  

“Models and other research software must be made available not just to scientists within the global north, but to everyone in the world,” Barton said. 

This level of transparency is the driving force behind their proposed solution to accessibility: an international open-science community called the Open Modeling Foundation, for which Barton serves as executive director.

The Open Modeling Foundation, which recently received a grant from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, seeks to create consistent standards aligning modeling code sharing with the FAIR principles, ensuring equitable access to researchers worldwide. The organization also hopes to incentivize open-source access to modeling software by creating professional development opportunities.

Much of the cutting-edge research being conducted globally utilizes computational modeling, and experiments that simulate potential future scenarios can influence policy guidance and risk management strategies. Creating access to these tools will enable scientists to better address pressing issues such as climate change or public health.

Barton said, “Computational modeling is helping scientists and policymakers to develop better strategies for addressing the challenges to human well-being and planetary health that confront all of humanity in a globally connected world. Common standards can advance the international collaboration in modeling science that is needed to achieve these goals.”

Dana Peters

Communications specialist , College of Global Futures

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Take it in: The science of awe

January 10, 2023

Associate Professor Michelle 'Lani' Shiota shares an easy way to increase your well-being

Editor's note: This story originally appeared in the winter 2023 issue of ASU Thrive magazine.

Want to add more happiness to your life?

Take some advice from Associate Professor Michelle “Lani” Shiota, who researches the science behind awe and other positive emotions.

Shiota says a way to improve mental health is to cultivate the feeling of awe. 

“Awe is that feeling you get when you perceive something as extraordinary — something so different from what your mind is used to that it stops whatever it was doing to pay attention. It’s great for giving our racing thoughts a break, and putting our day-to-day hassles and demands into perspective,” she says.

“You don’t have to go to the Grand Canyon to experience awe. Just go to new places nearby, and look at what’s around you with fresh eyes. Even stopping to take in our incredible Arizona sunsets can evoke a moment of awe.”

Read more about Shiota's work on the impact of awe.

Top photo by Sabira Madady/ASU

Weighing the future, viability of social media platforms

ASU experts weigh in on content moderation, free speech and misinformation in social media spaces

January 10, 2023

When a Twitter account purporting to be pharmaceutical giant Eli Lilly and Co. announced “insulin is free now” on Nov. 10, the company’s stock went tumbling. Using the new Twitter Blue service — which allows users to purchase a coveted blue checkmark, meant to ensure they are who they say they are — someone had cost the company millions for the price of $8.

Twitter Blue is just one of the changes Elon Musk rolled out since his purchase of the social media platform in October. Collage of images of an office setting, computers and social media posts. The way we communicate on social media is evolving, leading many to question the longevity and stability of these spaces. Graphic by Alec Lund Download Full Image

Since the purchase, the Tesla CEO has been very vocal about his plans for the social media site. Within the first few weeks of his purchase, Musk had already made sweeping changes to verification protocols, reinstated former President Donald Trump’s account and fired more than half the platform’s workforce. 

This upheaval has left many questioning the stability and future of social media platforms and what role these spaces play in public discourse.

Here, three Arizona State University experts share their insights on content moderation, free speech and mis- and disinformation in social media spaces.

Dan Gillmor is a former journalist and professor of practice in the Walter Cronkite School of Journalism and Mass Communication. He is also the co-founder of the News Co/Lab, which is an initiative in the Cronkite School that works to advance media literacy through journalism, education and technology.

Kristy Roschke is a media literacy expert and assistant teaching professor in the Cronkite School. She is also the managing director of the News Co/Lab.

Shawn Walker is an expert in social media data analysis and an assistant professor in the School of Social and Behavioral Sciences. His work focuses on addressing the social and ethical implications of social media data collection.

Question: What motivates content moderation? 

Gillmor: All internet services that offer people the ability to post things themselves moderate content to one degree or another. It's not just the big platforms, such as Facebook, Twitter or WhatsApp. One motivator is liability-related issues. For example, if there's a copyright infringement claim, and if they don't take down the item that's allegedly infringing, then they can be held liable for the infringement. 

Another reason for moderation is simply to make the experience better for users. It’s kind of the equivalent of you inviting people into your home for a party; if someone is acting up in a bad way, you ask them to leave. 

Q: How has the perception of free speech changed with the advent of social media?

Walker: When discussing social media, we often throw out terms like the First Amendment, censorship and free speech without understanding what those terms mean and when those terms are applicable. They're used often in a political context as calls to specific threats, or a specific level of concern. So if we use the phrase “I'm being censored” instead of “my content was deleted,” we're moving up the scale of aggression. We're saying, “A crime has been committed against me.” 

These are private platforms that are commercial spaces. The First Amendment does not apply to commercial spaces. Social media platforms own, operate and pay for the operation of these platforms. They're spaces that we happen to inhabit by agreeing to a set of terms of service. So there is no free speech right. This is not a platform that's produced by a government entity. This is not censorship, this is content moderation because you can't censor inside of a platform where you don't have a First Amendment right.

Gillmor: There's a general appreciation for freedom of expression, but it becomes tested when people see offensive content. Sometimes it's used in ways that are downright painful though legal, like hate speech. Our commitment to preserving freedom of expression is, I fear, being tested. I think it's the cornerstone of democracy and the republic. But the online world has tested people's commitment to free speech.

Q: What are the benefits or drawbacks of allowing social media companies to moderate speech? Do you think that they're doing a good job? 

Roschke: They've been forced into this role because we've had unfettered access to platforms that allow for any kind of speech, some of which has gotten increasingly ugly and harmful, veering toward hate speech. This has required companies that had no intention, and certainly no expertise, to play the role of a content moderator. Now that we've seen so many examples of how speech can be harmful online and in the real world, these companies have no choice but to make decisions about what to keep, what to remove, what to promote, what to downplay.

Are platforms doing a good job of content moderation? No, they're not, and that is not for a lack of money spent, because there have been large investments in content moderation. But it's not nearly enough in the grand scheme of things, and it is also disproportionately applied. For example, even though Facebook has a huge international population and arguably is more active in other countries than it is in the States, the bulk of the content moderation takes place on English content; but so much is really based in other countries and other languages. So it would be nearly impossible for these companies to be able to effectively moderate content. 

Walker: There isn’t much of an alternative. Having no content moderation would be very undesirable because people post a lot of content that we don't want to circulate, ranging from violent and sexual content to disinformation that we would argue would harm society. 

Sometimes folks act like mis- and disinformation is a solvable problem. Disinformation has been a problem since we've been communicating. So the question is, how do we decrease its negative impact on society versus how do we eliminate it?

Q: Where's the line between honoring free discourse but still maintaining a safe space online? 

Walker: Online is not a safe space. We encounter a lot of content that will make people feel uncomfortable and a lot of diversity of opinions and views in some spaces. We see some more insular spaces and private groups where there is more uniformity of opinion and less contesting of ideas. The platforms themselves get to decide because they own those spaces, and then we get to decide whether we want to participate in those spaces. 

Q: If online is not a safe space, what standards are social media companies held to? Do they have a responsibility to work toward a safe space? 

Walker: The issue with social media companies is that they've fallen under the same regulations as telecommunications companies and internet service providers in that, by law, telecommunication companies are not responsible for the things that folks do. They're just the network that messages move over, but they don't produce the content itself, so therefore they are not responsible for that. Social media platforms have been regulated under the same thing; however, they’re providing a different service than internet service providers. Social media companies and platforms are creating these platforms, so they decide who can talk about what features they have. So that's a bit different, but they've traditionally followed that sort of lack of regulation and lack of responsibility.

Q: Why is it important to be verified? What is that responsibility that goes along with it?

Roschke: Verification is a cross-platform designation. It's an aesthetic signal that anyone who's seen the internet or seen social media platforms looks at and says, "That means something about that person.” Oftentimes, that check mark is automatically conflated with trustworthiness. 

There's a magazine called Good Housekeeping and they have something called the Good Housekeeping Seal of Approval. And when they review products, they'll only put their seal on things that they recommend. Verification has that same connotation, even if in practice it's not actually the same thing. Verification really only means that this account belongs to a real person. However, the way that verification has been handed out across platforms is mostly to well-known people. This check mark has had significance for over 10 years, and that's really, really important because lots of people have learned to look at that check mark, sometimes incorrectly, for credibility.

Q: Does it make it easier to spread misinformation if you can just pay for your verification?

Roschke: Yes, it could make it easier for misinformation to gain traction. It could make it easier to see now, because there's this false sense of notability and credibility associated with an account with a check mark. If someone were to see something that they would dismiss otherwise, they might now give it a second thought or share it. 

Q: Do you think the changes happening at Twitter are indicative of trends across social media?

Roschke: Twitter as a platform is not the biggest; it's not even the second biggest. And it's used by some pretty specific people in most cases. This impacts a lot fewer people than if this were happening to Facebook or something. Twitter doesn't have the engagement that some other platforms do, but what it does have is very close ties to politicians and journalists. If this ecosystem is disrupted in a substantial way, there's going to be potentially big implications for journalism and how journalists and politicians communicate. Of course this has implications for all of the other social media platforms. It shows how precarious these systems of control are. We think that we own them or we run them because we produce all the content for them, but we don't run them and we have no control over what happens to them. And this is painfully obvious now.

Student science writer, Knowledge Enterprise

Faculty teach using ASU Sync Studios to connect with remote students

January 10, 2023

Lily Wong, an instructor at Arizona State University's Mary Lou Fulton Teachers College, opens her laptop and links to the five motion-detecting smart screens fixed to the walls in front of and beside her desk. She opens her Zoom room, and one by one, remote students replace the names in the digital blocks as the clock ticks closer to the start of class.

It’s a Monday during the fall 2022 semester, and she's teaching back-to-back classes in one of the soundproof ASU Sync Studios housed in the Payne Hall building on the Tempe campus. Woman smiling and waving at a laptop on a table in front of her. ASU Sync, the university’s third learning modality alongside fully immersive and online, provides students with technology-enhanced, fully interactive remote learning through soundproof teaching studios equipped with multiple monitors, a livestream camera, a surround sound bar and a touchscreen desktop. Download Full Image

In the time remaining before class, Wong arranges the class’ daily outline, assignments and vocabulary list on the remaining open screens. She teaches mathematics to future K–8 teachers, and today’s lesson starts with communicating math vocabulary effectively.

Satisfied with the arrangement, she addresses the students and class begins.

“I get a better feel for the room because I can see my students' faces and reactions while reviewing class content,” Wong said. “I can see acknowledgment of understanding or their questioning faces.”

As the two-hour, fully remote, synchronous class progresses, Wong navigates the five screens effortlessly, toggling from student to assignment to herself.

“I think a lot of the teachers' frustration with Zoom is managing all of the students and the buttons,” Wong said. “But having multiple screen options — for example, a chat screen or another screen to see students' faces — gives the feeling like you're actually in the classroom together.”

This is the ASU Sync Studio experience she’s come to love when teaching fully remote, synchronized classes.

ASU Sync is the university’s third learning modality — alongside fully immersive and online. It provides students with technology-enhanced, fully interactive remote learning.

Now, faculty can teach out of one of the three Sync Studios at the Tempe or Downtown campuses to enhance remote students' connectivity and learning experience.

The studios are mostly soundproof and come equipped with multiple monitors, a livestream camera, a surround sound bar and a touchscreen desktop.

"They're not having to just work through one computer, one Zoom space, fiddling around with a lot of moving parts,” said Celia Coochwytewa, manager of collaborative learning for ASU Enterprise Technology’s Learning Experience, which provides access to faculty workshops, consultations and resources to better connect teaching and technology. “Everything Zoom offers is right in front of the instructor with access to multiple monitors and studio-ready tools.”

And remote students are taking notice of the studio experience.

“I’ve been a virtual student for almost three years because of COVID-19,” said Shanti Oza, a sophomore majoring in elementary education. “And I appreciate how Ms. Wong took the time to connect with us on a personal level by creating an interactive learning environment.”

Looking ahead, the teams at Learning Experience plan to gather instructor and student feedback to enhance the experience of using the Sync Studios — both as instructor and learner, said Coochwytewa.

“We're going to see more synchronized classes needing this type of space to provide remote students with an in-person experience,” Coochwytewa said. “But with all the flexibility of being online.”

ASU faculty can visit the Learning Experience website to learn more about using Sync Studios.

“Teaching students in the studio is definitely the way to go versus having to teach from a computer screen at home or wherever I am,” Wong said. “It’s the next best thing to teaching in person.”

Written by Kevin Pirehpour; video by Alisha Mendez

Editorial Specialist, Enterprise Technology

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Summit connects city leaders, researchers to address resilience, sustainability challenges

January 6, 2023

ASU Ten Across Summit will be held Jan. 10–12 in Houston

If you want to understand the future of the United States, look no further than the southernmost transect that takes you from Los Angeles to Jacksonville, Florida. 

The region, which approximates where U.S. Interstate 10 runs, contains the three most populous states, 12 of the largest and most rapidly growing metro areas of the country, the energy capital of the world, many of the largest American international ports, a region that faces extremes in weather and water-related challenges, and a region of great diversity and demographic change. 

Starting on Jan. 10, civic leaders, researchers, subject matter experts and journalists will descend onto Houston for the third in-person Ten Across Summit: “The Future is Here,” which examines the region as a living laboratory for the future of the entire country.

“Ten Across focuses on this geography because we think it exemplifies all the future trends that we're going to have to deal with,” said Wellington “Duke” Reiter, founder and executive director of Ten Across.

The summit, which will have a special emphasis on the future of energy transition and water resilience, aims to foster collaboration, build partnership networks and translate data into compelling narratives to inspire action. 

"The purpose of the summit is to bring all sectors grappling with these pressing issues together to share insights in a solution focused setting," said Reiter, who also serves as the executive director of Arizona State University's University City Exchange. "It's an interesting mix (of people) around issues we need to be working on together. These conversations need to be had."

Speakers include Bobby Tudor, chairman of the Houston Energy Transition Initiative, Reginald DesRoches, Rice University president, Houston Mayor Sylvester Turner, Jeff Goodell, a best-selling author, esteemed journalists and editors Michael Kimmelman and Matt Thompson from Headway, the New York Times and many more. 

The summit will also foster introductions leading to intentional communities, working groups and networks specifically focused on community foundations, chief resilience and sustainability officers, water and data specialists, housing experts and leaders in the private sector. 

Panel discussions will explore key issues and challenges critical to the future of the U.S. with a focus on place and innovative ideas and solutions that may get us there. Topics include: the potential feasibility and implications of creating a pipe to move water from the Mississippi River to the Colorado River Basin; discussions around what the energy transition from fossil fuels to renewables will mean for Houston, the region and the industry; and what stories are resonating with climate journalists across the country and how public confidence in journalism and facts are necessary to meet the challenges before us.

In addition to panel discussions and networking events, there will be a special workshop on the use of data visualization tools for forecasting limited water supplies and educating the public and water policy discussions. The half-day workshop will bring together researchers and public and private sector experts — including ASU’s Rhett Larson, Richard Morrison Professor of Water Law at ASU's Sandra Day O'Connor College of Law, and Susan Craig, program director of ASU’s water initiative in the Global Institute of Sustainability and Innovation — to discuss how to create, improve and expand water analytics and visualization tools. It will also feature ongoing projects for sharing, evaluation, comparison and improvement, and joint efforts to create a larger water research network.

“The purpose of the summit is to rally people from different geographies around issues and concerns that they share,” Reiter said. “We’re bringing people together to find a common cause, and the fact that they all live on the same street tethers them together.” 

To learn more about the summit and access the full program agenda, visit the event website

Top image: Attendees at the Ten Across Summit in 2019. Courtesy of Ten Across

David Rozul

Media Relations Officer , Media Relations and Strategic Communications


ASU partners with Clean-Seas to create $50M plastic-to-hydrogen facility

The Arizona facility will be the first of its kind

December 21, 2022

A collaboration between Arizona State University's Rob and Melani Walton Sustainability Solutions Service and waste-to-energy-solutions company Clean-Seas is slated to bring a clean hydrogen facility — the first of its kind — to Arizona.

The two entities recently signed a memorandum of understanding to establish a $50 million plastic-to-clean hydrogen facility in a project that brings new meaning to the phrase “one man’s trash is another man’s treasure.”  An assortment of plastic items in a pile. The proposed facility will convert plastic waste feedstock into recycled-content plastic and Clean-Seas' clean hydrogen product. Image from Shutterstock. Download Full Image

According to the agreement, Clean-Seas will establish the facility and the Rob and Melani Walton Sustainability Solutions Service will provide access to its network of nearly 800 Global Futures scientists and scholars, as well as facilitation within its ASU-based headquarters. 

“What we are not trying to do is sustain the flow of plastic materials,” said Michael Dorsey, director and chair of the Rob and Melani Walton Sustainability Solutions Service. “That is a flow that needs to end and neither of us, at Walton or Clean-Seas, want the landfill to be the destination of plastic waste.” 

The proposed facility is expected to source plastic waste feedstock from the Phoenix metro region and redirect from landfills and incinerators. This material will then be converted to recycled-content plastic and Clean-Seas’ proprietary clean hydrogen product. Dorsey said the Rob and Melani Walton Sustainability Solution Service and Clean-Seas share a common vision: a sustainable, green, hydrogen-based global economy.

“We’re delighted to partner with ASU’s Rob and Melani Walton Sustainability Solutions Service,” said Dan Bates, CEO of Clean-Seas. “ASU and its extensive network of hundreds of renowned experts, and successful track record, advances the realization of our sustainability and hydrogen technology goals with collaborative deployment of state-of-the-art resources.”

“Right now, the process of generating hydrogen is enormously energy-intensive,” Dorsey said. “What’s key is making it a green hydrogen-based economy, not just any hydrogen-based economy. Part of a green hydrogen-based economy is using renewable energy and also coming up with new, non-fossil fuel technologies to do that more efficiently.”

Rob and Melani Walton Sustainability Solutions Service is part of ASU’s Global Institute of Sustainability and Innovation, which operates within the Julie Ann Wrigley Global Futures Laboratory. Clean-Seas is a wholly owned subsidiary of Clean Vision, a corporation focused on solutions with an emphasis on sustainability and renewable energy.

Katelyn Reinhart

Communications specialist, Julie Ann Wrigley Global Futures Laboratory

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Hope for happiness

December 20, 2022

ASU professors say positive psychology promotes mental health

The American jazz and folk musician Bobby McFerrin once sang, “Don’t worry, be happy.” 

But it's not always that simple.

Dealing with trauma, tragedy and relationships — or even the stress of family interactions, especially during the holidays — can sometimes make happiness elusive. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, in 2020, an estimated 21 million adults in the United States had at least one major depressive episode. 

Two new Arizona State University professors believe positive psychology can help. 

John K. Coffey and Katherine Nelson-Coffey, who just finished teaching their first semester at the West campus, are leading researchers in the field of positive psychology. They are both associate professors of psychology at ASU’s School of Social and Behavioral Sciences in the New College of Interdisciplinary Arts and Sciences

Positive psychology is a relatively new term that was first coined in the late '90s. The field’s approach is not about plastering a smile on and silently suffering through each day, but rather real and regularly practiced actions that promote mental health. 

The material they teach draws students from many different majors. 

“Students are so eager to grab onto this information and put it into action,” Nelson-Coffey said. “This is content that people want.”

ASU News spoke with the couple about how positive psychology works and the scientific studies that support it.  

Question: How would you describe positive psychology? 

Nelson-Coffey: Positive psychology focuses on understanding and promoting strengths, virtues and positive aspects of well-being. 

Coffey: (It) is about understanding how to thrive and live a good life. 

Q: How does positive psychology differ from other types of psychology?

Nelson-Coffey: I think one of the things that makes positive psychology unique is, of course, the focus on positive aspects of life. That doesn’t necessarily mean that other areas of psychology are negative, but they do tend to focus on the problems of human behavior, whether that’s mental illness, prejudice and discrimination, or other biases and misperceptions. Often, those areas might focus on alleviating those problems, which would often bring people back to a neutral state — and of course this is very important work. Positive psychology starts where these other areas end and tries to elevate people to a more positive, fulfilling way of life. 

Coffey: It’s human nature to focus on problems and adversity, and that’s important and helps with survival. We need to solve those problems, but it has led to less attention on things like positive emotions, sense of purpose and other experiences that prepare people for adversity and help people to thrive. 

Q: When someone is practicing positive psychology, what does that look like? What kinds of things are they doing? 

Nelson-Coffey: One thing that I really like about practicing positive psychology on a personal basis is that it doesn’t necessarily require a therapist, although it certainly can be incorporated into therapy. Most positive psychology activities are very simple, enjoyable and self-directed. My favorite positive psychology activities, to do and to research, are those that focus on building close relationships with others, such as expressing gratitude or practicing kindness. 

Coffey: ... It’s not so much about wanting to be happy as it is about following a path and doing activities that cultivate meaning, relationships and positive emotions in healthy ways. Sometimes this could be writing a gratitude letter or spending time with friends and loved ones. 

Q: How would someone use this approach to wellness in dealing with negative feelings, trauma and other experiences? 

Nelson-Coffey: I really like this question because I think a common misconception of positive psychology is that it’s all about promoting happiness, blind optimism or seeing the world through rose-colored glasses and that negative emotions are bad and should be avoided. I don’t agree with that approach at all. Everybody feels sad, angry or anxious, and unfortunately trauma is pretty common. People shouldn’t try to avoid or suppress these emotions because that will actually make things worse. If we can learn to experience joy, gratitude or awe even in the midst of these negative experiences, then we might be better able to cope with them. 

Coffey: All emotions are adaptive. Negative emotions help us survive and anticipate and resolve problems. Denying or hiding from these feelings is problematic in the long term, so being able to accept them and learn healthy ways to respond is an important skill.  

Q: What is the science behind positive psychology? What kind of research have each of you done in this area?

Nelson-Coffey: Positive psychology is based on the same scientific principles as other areas of psychology. Positive psychologists use rigorous methodologies to determine the causes and consequences of happiness, well-being and other topics within positive psychology. Most of my research focuses on close relationships — particularly families. I use a variety of methods in my research, including randomized controlled trials to evaluate how certain practices such as gratitude benefit families, daily diary studies to evaluate emotions and relationships in daily life, and surveys of large, nationally representative populations. 

Coffey: I use similar methods with more of a focus on children. Generally, I take a top-down approach to consider what a thriving adult looks like and then conduct research to evaluate how children’s experiences early in life help them to grow up to be a thriving adult. Most of my research focuses on positive emotions and relationships from infancy to adulthood. A lot of my studies are longitudinal — meaning that I evaluate positive emotions or relationships in childhood to predict well-being or other outcomes in adulthood. 

Q: With the holidays here, many people experience sadness, loneliness and more. Sometimes family get-togethers can trigger old wounds. Are there actions that people can take to prepare themselves for these kinds of feelings?

Nelson-Coffey: I think one thing that’s challenging about the holidays is that people often have a certain idea or expectation for how they want things to go — whether that’s how they want to interact with a family member or how someone will respond to a gift or more. And then they get upset or disappointed when things don’t go as planned. I think one strategy is to try to let go of those expectations and accept those negative emotions as they come up. It’s easy to have an inner voice telling you, “But it’s the holidays, you’re supposed to be happy!” But research shows that the more we idolize happiness in this way ... we’re often met with disappointment. 

Coffey: Managing expectations can be helpful. Taking time to savor and appreciate small things. Helping other people is another good one. Learn when to say no and don’t overdo it as a way to try to maintain balance.

Nelson-Coffey: Yeah, I think it’s good to know your limits. Schedules can get so busy during the holiday season and it feels like you have to do everything, which can leave people feeling really stressed. Thinking about priorities and what is “extra” can help people set boundaries.

Top photo by Ketut Subiyanto, courtesy Pexels

Dolores Tropiano

Reporter , ASU News