Materials research wins Air Force support for engineers


March 28, 2013

Promising research in areas that can be applied to national defense goals has earned two Arizona State University engineers grants from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

Kiran Solanki has been awarded a grant of more than $346,000 over the next three years and Robert Wang has received a grant for close to $360,000 over the same time period through the Air Force’s Young Investigator Research Program. Solanki and Wang Air Force grant Download Full Image

The program aids researchers in the early years of their careers whose work demonstrates potential for achieving significant advances in their fields of engineering and science.

Both Solanki and Wang are assistant professors of aerospace and mechanical engineering in the School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, one of ASU’s Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering.

Solanki’s work focuses on how the ratios of solute to base metals affect the performance of metal alloys, and how atomic-scale impurities affect the resiliency and strength of materials to be used in advanced technologies.

Wang is doing nanoscale heat transfer research that could improve thermoelectric devices and thermal barrier coatings.

Their proposals to address research challenges related to Air Force missions were among 40 recently selected for funding from among almost 200 project proposals.

Solanki’s work with multiscale modeling of lightweight alloys, specifically their fatigue and fracture behavior, helped earn him the grant.

“Air Force structures operate at harsher temperature ranges and environments than commercial aircraft,” Solanki explains, “The Air Force wants a lighter, stronger and better aircraft structure, as well as predictive frameworks to track the failure behavior of the structure.”

By examining the impurities in various lightweight alloys, his research team tries to improve its capability to hold up under fatigue while also developing a framework to predict failure behavior. Air Force application of such research would allow for improved aircraft structures and be a step toward development of a digital twin of an aircraft.

“The digital twin is a computational model that has enough detail to determine if an aircraft is safe to fly for a particular mission, and how much longer it can be in use,” Solanki says.

“The techniques my group wants to develop and implement to study fatigue crack initiation and short crack growth in lightweight alloys are quite promising for establishing a framework to systematically differentiate damage and strengthening mechanisms, as well as for identifying their impact for tracking structural damage more reliably and accurately,” Solanki explains.

Since joining ASU, Solanki has received The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) Light Metals Magnesium Best Fundamental Research Paper Award and the 2013 TMS Light Metals Division Young Leader Professional Development Award.

Wang’s work in thermal energy and nanomaterials involves the use of colloidal nanoparticles.

In his lab, Wang creates nanoparticles with precise control over size, composition and shape. These particles are then used in particle-matrix composites to study their performance in a variety of thermal energy applications.

“What we are doing for the Air Force project is taking the particles and mixing them with a chemical precursor that, when it decomposes, turns into a semiconductor,” he explains.

He is using the decomposition process – ordinarily an undesirable process – to produce a semiconductor matrix with nanoparticles in the composite. This process could potentially produce more efficient thermoelectric materials.

A thermoelectric material’s performance is highly dependent on its thermal conductivity. A low thermal conductivity allows the energy output of a material to be higher.

Wang says previous research has proven that thermal conductivity can be lowered by both suspending nanoparticles in materials and by using materials containing atomic-scale impurities, or alloys.

Both of these factors are known to scatter different wavelengths of phonons, which are atomic-scale waves that transport heat in solids.

To better understand the effects of the nanoparticles in lowering conductivity, Wang will use a technique called phonon spectroscopy, which allows the generation of specific phonon frequencies so that their transmission through a material can be observed.

“So rather than having to look at the entire spectrum all at once, I can isolate single frequencies and determine what size and shape of nanoparticle most efficiently scatters certain phonons.”

The research could provide a deeper understanding of nanoscale heat transfer, which can be applied to thermoelectrics to reduce thermal conductivity. Another application is for thermal barrier coatings, which are thin insulating films that are applied to turbine blades to protect them from the intense heat of combustion in engines.

The Air Force young investigator award “is definitely a very big deal for my research group. It’s really going to make an impact on my career.”

The research project will also help provide experience for two students working under Wang’s supervision as they pursue doctoral degrees – materials science and engineering student Yuanyu Ma and mechanical engineering student Seid Sadat.

Written by Natalie Pierce and Joe Kullman

Joe Kullman

Science writer, Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering

480-965-8122

Award-winning films, directors headline ASU Human Rights Film Festival


March 28, 2013

Palestinian villager Emad Burnat bought his first camera to document the birth of his fourth son, Gibreel. But what started off as a home video celebrating new life became a full-length film about the power of non-violent protest and political activism.

Burnat transformed into a filmmaker after Gibreel’s birth, when the Israeli army began to confiscate land from farmers in the West Bank village of Bil’in. Tensions between villagers and the army led to a series of violent events, all captured by Burnat and his cameras. Palestinian filmmaker's son looks over at Israeli settlements from above Download Full Image

The resulting “5 Broken Cameras,” an Academy Award-nominated film, co-directed by Burnat and Israeli documentarian Guy Davidi, is one of 10 films being screened during ASU’s third annual Human Rights Festival, hosted at the Tempe campus April 5-7.

The three-day festival seeks to enhance awareness and understanding of a variety of human rights issues across the world. 

The showing of “5 Broken Cameras” is paired with the Official Tribeca Selection, “My Neighbourhood,” in which Israeli activists join their Palestinian neighbors to protest the forced evictions occurring in their community. The film offers a look into the oft-ignored stories of Palestinians and Israelis coming together in the name of justice. Afterwards, Sergey Gordey, producer of “5 Broken Cameras,” will Skype in for a discussion led by peace and justice activist Barbara Taft from Amnesty International, in order to further the audience’s understanding of the conflict, the human rights abuses that have been committed, and the prospects for peace.

“I was inspired to create a human rights film festival, in part, because in an academic environment it is easy to get lost in heady and sometimes terrible facts,” says LaDawn Haglund, Human Rights Film Festival director and associate professor of Justice and Social Inquiry in the School of Social Transformation. “Film, when done well, forces us to bring our hearts to the issues, helping us to empathize and, hopefully, spurring us to act.”

Several other award-winning films will be screened throughout the weekend, covering human rights issues that encompass the local, the global and the transcendently human.

“We Women Warriors” and “Four Stories Of Water” focus on Indigenous rights, in Colombia and within the United States, respectively. “A Fierce Green Fire” – a 2012 Sundance Official Selection – chronicles the environmental movement from its inception to the present, and Academy Award-nominated director of “Berkeley in the Sixties," Mark Kitchell, will be on hand for a live discussion.

A series of three short films will highlight human rights issues in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The festival will close with the award-winning “Bullied to Silence,” (Boston International Film Festival), and “Two Americans,” documenting Sherriff Joe Arpaio’s arrest of Phoenix grade-schooler Katherine Figueroa’s parents.

Each of the festival’s seven sessions will be followed by a discussion with filmmakers or subject-area experts, allowing for a deeper, more informative experience.

“I hope the audience leaves with a better understanding of the range of human rights problems that exist in the world today, as well as a stronger sense of what others are doing, and what they might do, to resolve them,” continues Haglund. “This is a tiny effort among many to transform society to be more socially just.”

The festival is sponsored by The Lincoln Center for Applied Ethics at ASU and the School of Social Transformation, both units of the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences; the Center for Law and Global Affairs; Amnesty International, Tempe chapter; Amnesty International, ASU student chapter; and the Global Institute of Sustainability.

All sessions are free and open to the public, but RSVPs are requested to aid in ordering refreshments: http://humanrightsfilmfestival 2013.eventbrite.com.

The Friday afternoon sessions will be held in the Schwada Classroom Office Building (SCOB). The Friday evening, Saturday, and Sunday sessions will be held in the Great Hall of Armstrong Hall, Sandra Day O’Connor College of Law.

For a complete schedule of films and speakers, links to film trailers, and parking information, see http://humanrights.asu.edu/node/91. For more information, contatt LaDawn.Haglund@asu.edu.

Story by Zarina Guerrero, justice studies major, School of Social Transformation

Maureen Roen

Director, Creative Services, College of Integrative Sciences and Arts

602-496-1454