ASU hosts conversation with Anderson Cooper on media, democracy

April 22, 2015

What role can the media play in encouraging a more participatory democracy?

That's the question ASU professor Matthew Whitaker and journalist and author Anderson Cooper will answer in a community conversation moderated by Whitaker. portrait of journalist Anderson Cooper Download Full Image

The event, ASU’s second annual Delivering Democracy Lecture, takes place at 4:30 p.m., April 25, at Pilgrim Rest Baptist Church, 1401 E. Jefferson St., Phoenix.

“Our democracy is special in its ability to propel average people, lifted by hope and passion, to work to affect positive change,” said Whitaker, Arizona State University Foundation Professor of History and founding director of the Center for the Study of Race and Democracy. “It’s often regular folk who challenge us as a nation to maximize our democratic potential.”

“Can journalists help foster an environment in which participatory democracy is better understood, valued and promoted? How can the media educate, empower and inspire individuals – especially young people – to use their talents and skills to become positive change agents? These are some of big questions we’ll be exploring,” Whitaker added.

Cooper, who anchors the weekday CNN television news show Anderson Cooper 360, is also known for his social justice advocacy and philanthropy, supporting causes that address civil and human rights, HIV and AIDS research, bullying, sexual abuse and children’s health in emerging and expanding democracies.

“Anderson Cooper is courageous, principled and respected for his professionalism, going beyond the headlines with in-depth reporting and investigations,” said Whitaker. “His ability to connect with people from all walks of life, and [his] personal commitment to work toward building unity and tolerance across cultural divides aligns straight-up with our mission for the Center for the Study of Race and Democracy, and we’re honored to be hosting his visit to Phoenix.”

Sarah Herrera, senior program specialist with the center, encourages people to come early to the event and browse the community resource fair that will be staffed from 2 to 4 p.m., and to enjoy an electrifying performance of the Pilgrim Rest Baptist Church Gospel Choir, beginning at 4 p.m.

Last year’s inaugural Delivery Democracy Lecture drew a crowd of 2,500-plus to hear actor and humanitarian Forest Whitaker.

Herrera and colleague Deborah Cox, senior project specialist, have been working for more than a year with professor Whitaker and student assistants Krystal Lee and Zachary Mihalevich to plan the 2015 Delivery Democracy Lecture, the center’s signature event.

“Our Architects of Change volunteer group has also put in almost 400 hours of service in planning this year’s lecture,” Herrera said. “Like so many of our programs, it has been a 360-degree, university-community partnership.

“We’ll have more than 30 organizations at the resource fair, including representatives from ASU Admissions and College of Public Service and Community Solutions,” Herrera said. “Organizations such as the ACLU, Arizona Dream Act Coalition, Arizona Humanities Council and Tanner Community Development Corporation will also be represented.”

Community sponsors for the Delivering Democracy Lecture number nearly 20, with substantial sponsorship from APS, Blue Cross Blue Shield and the Arizona Community Foundation Black Philanthropy Initiative, in addition to Pilgrim Rest Baptist Church.

The event is free and open to the public but tickets are required. Register online at or call the center at 602-496-1376.

ASU's Center for the Study of Race and Democracy is a unit in the College of Letters and Sciences, with offices on ASU's Downtown Phoenix campus.

Maureen Roen

Manager, Creative Services, College of Integrative Sciences and Arts


ASU anthropologist explores warfare as a form of cooperation

April 22, 2015

While many view warfare as a breakdown between societies, Arizona State University anthropologist Sarah Mathew views it as an outgrowth of cooperation.

Instead of focusing on warring factions, she considers that each side in a war is composed of people who hold the same ultimate goal and work together to achieve it. Download Full Image

Mathew studies the pastoral societies of East Africa to understand what bonds people in cooperative endeavors that can produce dangerous, often fatal, consequences. Most of her work revolves around the Turkana of Kenya, with whom she spent 15 months conducting fieldwork.

“These societies maintain high levels of social order and justice within the tribe without formal institutions, such as centralized governments and court systems, yet they also engage in lethal intertribal warfare,” she said.

Among the Turkana, half of adult male mortality is due to intertribal warfare, whereas only one percent can be attributed to interpersonal violence.

War parties average 300 warriors, and many are strangers. Armed with assault rifles, they travel up to 60 miles to steal cattle, raid villages or exact vengeance for previous raids.

During her time with the Turkana, Mathew interviewed 120 warriors who had participated in recent raids against a neighboring tribe. She followed that up with a survey of 300 community members that gauged their reactions to violations of local cultural norms.

Her results suggest that cultural norms promote behaviors that benefit the tribe, even when they are not in an individual’s best interest. Violations of norms generate moral judgments and lead to social sanctions that range from refusal of assistance to the administration of collective corporal punishment. The consequences motivate people to abide by the local norms, including norms related to violence.

Taking the research to the next level

Most research to date on human cooperation has been done on Western, educated, industrialized, rich and democratic populations. Mathew believes that advancing the study of the evolution of cooperation – and warfare – requires opening up the research to include the spectrum of cultures.

She also believes that harnessing the capacity for cooperation even further – to include those who fall outside the groups with whom we normally cooperate – is key to solving the problem of warfare.

“To accomplish this task,” Mathew said, “we need a more detailed understanding of the extent and scale of humans’ evolved prosocial and moral dispositions.”

Mathew recently became one of 32 inaugural Carnegie Fellowship winners, bringing her $200,000 to expand her work by launching two studies under the title “Is the Cultural Boundary Also the Moral Boundary?”

Other awardees of the Carnegie Fellowship included professors from Harvard University, MIT and and Standford University. (The full list of winners can be found here.)

Mathew's proposed research will focus on two areas. First, what are the social boundaries of people’s moral and cooperative dispositions? This issue is paramount because some theories of the evolution of human cooperation predict that the social boundary will be defined by the cultural or ethnic boundary.

Second, Mathew will attempt to determine whether there are consistent cross-cultural patterns in the psychological costs of killing in warfare.

On the latter subject, she is specifically concerned with a complicated question: Do cultural norms promoting lethal violence conflict with an evolved moral psychology that is averse to committing violence?

The Carnegie funding will allow Mathew to develop a data collection scheme to evaluate whether PTSD exists in warriors who have participated in intertribal warfare and if there is a systematic aversion to killing in combat.

“Sarah’s work is important because it will help us understand the nature of war over the broad sweep of human history and because it can illuminate many conflicts in the world today,” said noted cultural evolution pioneer Robert Boyd, who nominated Mathew for the Carnegie award.

Understanding the motivation and cost of warfare

While experiments reveal that people are motivated to sanction unfair behavior, the scale is not known. Mathew hopes to learn if people sanction unfair behavior only within their local community or if they extend sanctions to a larger cultural group or beyond the cultural group boundary.

Using economic experiments and vignette studies, she will explore how Turkana individuals judge and impose sanctions on a person who acts unfairly against a close associate, and how the response varies based on social distance.

What she discovers could lead to a wide variety of outcomes, from a better understanding of culturally inherited norms, values and beliefs to more effective treatment options for post-traumatic stress disorder.

Though young in her career, Mathew – an assistant professor in the School of Human Evolution and Social Change in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences – is already a well-known expert in her field.

Last year, she shared the ASU Gammage stage with Steven Pinker, Richard Wrangham, Erica Chenoweth, Adrian Raine and John Mueller as part of an ASU Origins Project Great Debate on Transcending Our Origins: Violence, Humanity and the Future.

She also co-chaired a roundtable discussion at an American Anthropological Association meeting wherein ethnographers working among different warring pastoral societies in East Africa shared observations that pertain to this issue.

Unlike some of her peers, who believe that cultural differences birth insurmountable obstacles, Mathew operates from a more hopeful platform. She offers instances that bridge cultural divides to create cooperation, such as donations in the wake of natural disasters, trade groups, and yes, warfare.

She proposes that morality is the solution to violence and self-interested actions that harm others. Within this framework, the problems of today stem from the limited scale of morality that people extend only to members of their own family, ethnic group, political party, nation or religion.

As an example, Mathew points to nation states that typically condemn and punish internal homicide but allow – and even promote – killing during times of war.

“Nation states are able to solve many public good problems within their boundaries but have been unable to tackle global warming, which requires cooperation among multiple nation states,” she said. “Thus, it is crucial to understand the extent and scale of human prosociality in order to know how the moral sphere can be scaled up to solve critical global problems.”

Thanks to the Carnegie Fellowship, and an earlier award to the Institute of Human Origins from the John Templeton Foundation, Mathew will continue to build out her research into how humans – the sole species able to cooperate in large groups of unrelated, unfamiliar individuals – came to exploit that trait to destroy their own kind.

Rebecca Howe

Communications Specialist, School of Human Evolution and Social Change